This article discusses the claim of a new paradigm in the knowledge production and diffusion process, and the need to assess the regional and local implications of this modal shift. After introductory remarks included in the first part of the paper, its next section introduces the theme of localisation of knowledge as a source of regional development; section three examines the lessons we can extract from the US university system (with a particular regard to the case of Johns Hopkins University and the recent project for a biotech park in the city of Baltimore); in section four an illustration of the Italian University system leads to a description of the current evolution of the University of Bologna toward a new entrepreneurial role. The last part of the paper discusses the embedded role of universities in the light of the two cases presented in the previous sections and draws the conclusions in terms of regional policy.
knowledge-based economy, university education, local and regional development
ANTARES (2007), Rapporto di ricerca sul distretto della meccatronica a Reggio Emilia, accessibile online ( www.centro-antares.net
AUDRETSCH, D. B. et al. (2002), ‘The Economics of Science and Technology’, Journal of Technology Transfer, 27 pp. 155-203.
AUDRETSCH, D. B. and FELDMAN, M. P. (1996), ‘R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production’, The American Economic Review, 86(3).
AUTM (2007), Licensing activity survey FY 2007, accessible online.
BALDERI, C., BUTELLI, P., CONTI, G., Di MININ, A. and PICCALUGA, A. (2007), ‘Towards an Italian Way in the Valorisation of Results from Public Research’, Impresa progetto, 1 pp. 1-32, accessible on line.
BANCA D'ITALIA. (2007), Note sull'andamento dell'economia dell'Emilia Romagna, accessibile online.
BENDER, T. (ed.), (1988), The University and the City: From Medieval Origins to Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
BERCOVITZ, J. and FELDMAN, M. (2006), ‘Entpreprenerial Universities and Technology Transfer: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Knowledge-based Economic Development’, Journal of Technology Transfer, 31 pp. 175-188.
BERCOVITZ, J., FELDMAN, M., FELLER, I. and BURTON, R. (2001), ‘Organizational Structure as a Determinant of Academic Patent and Licensing Behaviour: An Explanatory Study of Duke, Johns Hopkins, and Pennsylvania State Universities’, Journal of Technology Transfer, 26 pp. 21-35.
BEST, M. H. (2005), ‘Regional Specialization and Cluster Drivers: Medical Devices in Massachusetts’, Business and Economic History, online.
BOSHMA, R. A. (2005), ‘Proximity and Innovation: A Critical Assessment’, Regional Studies, 39(1), pp. 61-74.
CHARLES, D. (2006), ‘Universities as Key Knowledge Infrastructures in Regional Innovation Systems’, Innovation, 19(1), pp. 117-130.
COOKE, P. and LEYDESDORF, L. (2006), ‘Regional Development in the Knowledge-based Economy: The Construction of Advantage’, Journal of Technology Transfer, 3 pp. 5-15.
COOKE, P. (2004), ‘Life sciences clusters and regional science policy’, Urban Studies, 5-6, pp. 1113-1131.
CRUI-Netval (2007), Il salto di qualità. Quinto rapporto annuale sulla valorizzazione della ricerca nelle università italiane, Decembre, accessible online.
DAVID, P. and FORAY, D. (2002), ‘An Introduction to the Economy of the Knowledge Society’, International Social Science Journal, 54(171), pp. 9-23.
DICKEN, P. and MALMBERG, A. (2001), ‘Firms in Territories: A Relational Perspective’, Economic Geography, 77(4).
EVANS, H. D. (2008), ‘Knowledge Hubs and Knowledge Clusters: Designing a Knowledge Architecture for Development’, ZET Working Paper Series, Bonn: Department of Political and Cultural Change, accessible online.
ETZKOWITZ, H. (2003), ‘Research Groups as "Quasi-firms": The Invention of the Entrepreneurial University’, Research Policy, 32 pp. 109-121.
ETZKOWITZ, H. (2004), ‘The Evolution of the Entrepreneurial University’, International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, 1 (1).
ETZKOWITZ, H. and LEYDESDORFF, L. (2000), ‘The Dynamics of Innovation: Form National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations’, Research Policy, 29 pp. 109-123.
ETZKOWITZ, H. and ZHOU, C. (2007), ‘The Entrepreneurial University in Various Triple Helix Models’, Singapore Triple Helix VI Conference, accessible online.
FELDMAN, M. P. (2003), ‘Entrepreneurship and American Research Universities. Evolution in Technology Transfer’, [in:] HART, D. M. (ed.), The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy. Governance, Start ups, and Growth in the US Knowledge Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
FELDMAN, M. and DESROCHERS, P. (2003), ‘Research Universities and Local Economic Development: Lessons from the History of the Johns Hopkins University’, Industry and Innovation, 10(1), pp. 5-24.
FORAY, D. (2000), L'economie de la connaissance, Paris: La Decouverte.
GERTLER, M. S. and VINODRAI, T. (2004), ‘Anchors of Creativity: How do Public Universities Create Competitive and Cohesive Communities?’, Paper presented at ‘Building Excellence: Graduate Education and Research’ Taking public Universities seriously: A conference sponsored by the University of Toronto, December.
GEUNA, A. (2001), ‘The Changing Rationale for European University Research Funding: Are There Negative, Unintended Consequences?’, Journal of Economic, 35(3).
GIBBONS, M., LIMOGES, C. and NOWOTNY, H. (1994), The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies, London: Sage.
GUNASEKARA, C. (2006), ‘Reframing the Role of Universities in the Development of Regional Innovation Systems’, Journal of Technology Transfer, 31 pp. 101-113.
HALL, P. (1998), Cities in Civilization. Culture, Innovation and Urban Order, London: Weinfeld and Nicholson.
HESSELS, L. K. and Van LENTE, H. (2008), ‘Rethinking New Knowledge Production: A Literature Review and a Research Agenda’, Research Policy, 37 pp. 740-760.
HILL, K. (2006), Universities in the US National Innovation System, Arizona State University, March, accessible online.
ITTELSON, T. and NELSEN, L. (2002), ‘Business Incubation and Startup’, Nature Biotechnology, 20 accessible online.
LESLIE, S. (2001), ‘Regional Disadvantage. Replicating Silicon Valley in New York's Capital Region’, Technology and Culture, 42, (2).
LEVINE, M. A. (1987), ‘Dowtown Redevelopment as an Urban Growth Strategy: A Critical Reappraisal of the Baltimore Renaissance’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 9, pp. 103-124.
MALMBERG, A., SOLVELL, O. and ZANDER, I. (1996), Spatial Clustering, Local Accumulation of Knowledge and Firm Competitiveness, Geografiska Annaler, Series B, Human Geography, 78, (2) pp. 85-97.
MARSHALL, A. (1916), Principles of economics, London: MacMillan.
MORGAN, K. (1997), ‘The Learning Region: Institutions, Innovation and Regional Renewal’, Regional Studies, 31, (5) pp. 491-503.
NELSEN, L. (2005), ‘The Role of Research Institutions in the Formation of the Biotech Cluster in Massachusetts: The MIT Experience’, Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 11 (4), pp. 330-336.
NELSON, R. (1993), National Systems of Innovation. A Comparative Analysis, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
NOWOTNY, H., SCOTT, P. and GIBBONS, M. (2001), Re-Thinking Science: Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty, London: Polity Press.
PERRY, D. C. and WIEWEL, W. (eds), The University as Urban Developer: Case Studies and Analysis, M. E. Sharpe, Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
POMA, L. and RAMACIOTTI, L. (2008), ‘La valorizzazione della ricerca universitaria mediante l'interpolazine dei saperi. Infrastrutture materiali ed immateriali’, L'Industria, 29, numero speciale.
POWELL, W. W. and SNELLMAN, K. (2004), ‘The Knowledge Economy’, Annual Review of Sociology, 30, pp. 199-220.
SACCHETTI, S. and SUGDEN, R. (2005), ‘Mental Proximity: Identifying Networks of Mutual Dependence’ [in:] THEURL T. (ed.), Strategies for Cooperation, Shaker Aachen.
SAXENIAN, A. L. (1994), Regional Advantages. Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
SCHUMPETER, J. (1911), The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, .
TEECE, D. (1985), ‘Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy’, Research Policy, 15, pp. 285-305.
YOUTIE, J. and SHAPIRA, P. (2008), ‘Building an Innovation Hub: A Case of the Transformation of University Roles in Regional Technological and Economic Development’, Research Policy, 37 (8), pp. 1188-1204.
WRIGHT, M., CLARYSSE, B., LOCKETT, A. and KNOCKART, M. (2008), ‘"Mid-range Universities" Linkages with Industry: Knowledge Types and the Role of Intermediaries’, Research Policy, 37, pp. 1205-1223.