European Spatial Research and Policy


It seems that our world is made of mainly nation states – independent states based on one particular nation, sometimes with some minorities in that state. Thus the model seams to be ‘a nation is establishing its boundaries’. On the other hand, our world also has the ‘boundaries that made a nation’ model, in which a nation was created after boundaries were drawn. Most independent European countries belong to the first model but Spain, Belgium, and five tiny states belong to the second model.


international boundaries, nations, Europe




AL BAHARAM, H. M. (1975), The Arabian Gulf States: Their Legal and Political Status and Their International Problems, Beirut: Librairie du Liban.

BIGER, G. (1981), ‘Where Was Palestine, Pre-World War I Perception’, Area, 13 (2), pp. 153-160.

BIGER, G. (1995), The Encyclopedia of International Boundaries, New York: Fact on Files.

BIGER, G. (2004), The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, London: Routledge.

BIGER, G. (2008), ‘Britain Role as a Boundary Maker in the Middle East’, [in:] LEVEY, Z. and PODEH, E. (eds), Britain in the Middle East, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, pp. 21-32.

BROWNLIE, I. (1979), African Boundaries: A Legal and Diplomatic Encyclopedia, London-Los Angeles: C. Hurst.

CIA (2010), The World Factbook www.cia.gov/library

ENGLEFIELD, G. (1992), ‘Yugoslavia, Croatia, Slovenia: Re-Emerging Boundaries’, Territory Briefings, 3. Durham: IBRU.

GIROT, P. O. (ed.), (1994), World Boundaries, Vol. IV, London-New York: Routledge.

GONEN, A. (ed.), (1993), The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World, New York: H. Holt.

HELLER, R. P. and LONG, E. (1970), Free and Swiss, London: O. Wolff.

IRELAND, G. (1971), Boundaries, Possessions and Conflicts in South America, New York: Octagon Books.

LANYI, G. A. and MCWILLIAMS, W. C. (1966), Crisis and Continuity in World Politic, New York: Random.

KRANZ, W. (ed.), (1981), The Principality of Liechtenstein. A Documentary Handbook, Vaduz: Information Office of the Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein.

MCKEAR, E. (ed.), (2005), The New Oxford American Dictionary, New York: Oxford University Press.

MINOGUE, K. R. (1967), Nationalism, London: B. T. Batsford.

MUIR, R. (1975), Modern Political Geography, London: Macmillan Press.

TOUVAL, S. (1972), The Boundary Politics of Independent Africa, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

First Page


Last Page