The paper examines the development of education systems and international migrations in selected new Member States. The countries are Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The paper focuses on various elements in the development of education systems making people able to cope with competition on global labour markets. The outcomes of these developments largely regulate the supply of labour and consequently its international demand. Some statistics on international migration and integration of migrants in global labour markets are presented. The aim of this paper is to raise questions about relevant issues to be paid attention to in studies focusing on education and international migrations rather than to try to give any straightforward solutions.


education system, international migration, new Member State, EU, OECD, labour market, globalisation




ČAPLÁNOVÁ, A. (1999/2000), ‘The Reform of the System of Higher Education in Slovakia, Current Status and Perspectives’, Center for Policy Studies, Central European University, Open Institute, International Policy Fellowship Program 1999/2000, http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00001923/01/caplanova.pdf

DUSTMANN, C. and PEREIRA, S. C. (2005), ‘Wage Growth and Job Mobility in the UK and Germany’, IZA Discussion Paper, 1586.

EACEA P9 EURYDICE (2010), Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes: Study on the Measures Taken and the Current Situation in Europe, Brussels: Education, Audiovisual and Cultural Executive Agency.

ECA (2010), The 2009 Estonian Human Development Report, Tallinn: Estonian Cooperation Assembly.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2011), Research and Innovation, Innovation Union Competitiveness Report 2011, Brussels, http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/index_en.cfm?section=competitiveness-report&year=2011

EUROSTAT (2010), Europe in Figures – Eurostat Yearbook 2010, Statistical Books, European Union, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-CD-10-220/EN/KS-CD-10-220EN.PDF

HAAV, K. (2007), ‘Changes in Students’ Values in Estonia’, [in:] ROSS, A. (ed.), Citizenship Education in Society, London: CiCe, pp. 491–498.

JENSEN, H. T., KRALJ, A., MCQUILLAN, D. and REICHERT, S. (2008), ‘The Slovak Higher Education System and its Research Capacity’, EUA Sectoral Report, European University Association (EUA) Institutional Evaluation Programme, http://www.eua.be/fileadmin/user_upload/files/newsletter/Slovakia_SectorEvaluationReport_080208.pdf

JONKERS, K. (2011), ‘Immigration and European Innovation Systems, Challenges for Economic Growth and Prosperity’, EU–US Immigration Systems 2011/06, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, San Domenico di Fiesole (FI): European University Institute, http://www.eui.eu/RSCAS/Publications/

KULTALAHTI, O. (2006), ‘An Analytical Framework of Research on Migration Pressure: Concepts and Approaches’, [in:] KULTAHTI, O., KARPPI, I. and RANTALA, H. (eds.), Europe in Flux. Transitions and Migration Pressures, Europe in Flux, Turku: Institute of Migration, pp. 192–215.

KULTALAHTI, O., DRBOHLAV, D. and JANSKÁ, E. (1999), ‘What Is the Impact of Transformation Processes on Emigration Potential in Transition Economies?’, Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geographica, 34 (1), pp. 75–91 (reprinted in: KULTAHTI, O., KARPPI, I. and RANTALA, H. (eds), (2006), Europe in Flux. Transitions and Migration Pressures, Turku: Institute of Migration, pp. 192–215.

KULTALAHTI, J., KARPPI, I., KULTALAHTI, O. and TODISCO, E. (eds.), (2009), Globalisation. Challenges to Research and Governance, Helsinki: East-West Books Helsinki.

NEWLAND, K., AGUNIAS, D. R. and TERRAZAS, A. (2008), ‘Learning by Doing: Experiences of Circular Migration’, Insight. MPI’s Program on Migrants, Migration, and Development, Migration Policy Institute (MP I), www.migrationinformation.org

OECD (2009), OECD Reviews of Tertiary Education - Czech Republic, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/8/32/37730231.pdf

PUNGAS, E., TOOMET, O. and TAMMARU, T. (2011), ‘Are Better Educated Migrants Returning? Evidence from Multidimensional Education Data’, Department of Geography, University of Tartu, Estonia, http://www.obs.ee/~siim/Education_return_migration_2011-09-05.pdf

RANDOJA, M. (2009), ‘Soolised erinevused täiskasvanute koolituses’ (Gender differences in adult education), [in:] Täiskasvanute koolitus (Adult education), Tallinn: Eesti Statistika (Statistics Estonia), pp. 68–88.

RUMMO-LAES, T.-L. (2007), ‘Education as a Factor Supporting Social Cohesion’, [in:] Social Trends, 4, Tallinn: Statisrics Estonia, pp. 41–52.

SE (2006), Statistical Yearbook of Estonia 2006, Tallinn: Statistics Estonia.

SOE (2001), Social Trends 2, Tallinn: Statistical Office of Estonia.

SOE (2004), Social Trends 3, Tallinn: Statistical Office of Estonia.

SOPEMI (2007), ‘Matching Educational Background and Employment: A Challenge for Immigrants in Host Countries’, International Migration Outlook 2007, OECD, http://www.oecd.org/document/25/0,3746,en_2649_33729_38797017_1_1_1_1,00.html

SOPEMI (2011), ‘Recent Changes in Migration Movements and Policies (Country Notes)’, International Migration Outlook 2011, OECD, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/22/5/48342373.pdf

TÅHLIN, M. (2007), ‘Skills and Wages in European Labour Markets: Structure and Change’, [in:] GALLIE, G. (ed.), Employment Regimes and the Quality of Work, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 35–76.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), (2000), Human Development Report 2000, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), (2001), Human Development Report 2001. Making New Technologies Work for Human Development, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), (2009), Human Development Report 2009. Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development, New York, http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2009/

VITALE, A. (2011), ‘The Contemporary EU’s Notion of Territoriality and External Borders’, European Spatial Research and Policy, 18 (2), pp. 17–27.

White Paper on Tertiary Education – Problems and Shortcomings (2009), Council of Higher Education Institutions, http://www.reformy-msmt.cz/reforma-terciarniho-vzdelavani/sites/default/files/conference/White_paper_on_Tertiary_Education_zlatuska.pdf

First Page


Last Page