The period since the 1960s has been characterised by growing societal concern with urban heritage protection and the development of legislative, fiscal and urban planning instruments that seek to ensure the protection and enhancement of historic buildings and environments. International organisations such as UNESCO and European level documents such as the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) have stressed the cultural and economic value of the ‘wise management of natural and cultural heritage’. Since the 1970s many cities have sought to redefine and regenerate themselves through a revalorisation of their past and the protection and enhancement of their historic urban landscapes. Urban heritage has thus often come to be seen as a component of the territorial capital of places, and often had a symbiotic relationship with the objective of urban regeneration. However, urban heritage is not a static concept and ideas about what constitutes heritage, the value of different historic urban environments, and the contribution they can make to city development and regeneration continue to evolve. This paper reflects on this evolution in the context of the English planning system and illustrates some key trends and issues surrounding urban heritage through a consideration of recent and ongoing heritage related planning episodes in the northern English city of Liverpool.
heritage, conservation planning, conservation philosophy, Liverpool, historic urban landscape
ALLEN, C. (2008), Housing Market Renewal and Social Class, Abingdon: Routledge.
ALLEN, C. and CROOKES, L. (2009), ‘Fables of the Reconstruction: A Phenomenology of “Place Shaping” in the North of England’, Town Planning Review, Vol. 80, No. 4/5, pp. 455–480.
ASHWORTH, G. J. (1997), ‘Conservation as Preservation or as heritage: two paradigms and two answers’, Built Environment, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 92–102.
BOOTH, P. (2010), ‘Sheffield: a miserable disappointment no more?’, [in:] PUNTER, J. (ed.), Urban Design and the British Urban Renaissance, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 85–99.
BROWN, J. (2009), ‘Liverpool betrayed: From post-war to Pathfinder’, [in:] Triumph, disaster and decay – The SAVE survey of Liverpool’s heritage, London: SAVE Britain’s Heritage, pp. 23–27.
BROWN, J. (2011), ‘Introduction’, [in:] FINLAY, B. and BROWN, J. (2011), Housing Scandal! Pathfinder: A Postmortem, London: Save Britain’s Heritage, http://www.savebritainsheritage.org/docs/articles/jb%20intro.pdf
BROWN, P. (2005), ‘Road to nowhere’, Civic Focus (The Civic Trust), 50, pp. 4–5.
BYRNE, D. (1991), ‘Western Hegemony in archaeological heritage management’, History and Anthropology, Vol. 5, pp. 269–276.
CITY CENTRE PLANNING GROUP (1965), Liverpool City Centre Plan, Liverpool: Liverpool City Council.
CLARKE, N. and COCHRAINE, A. (2013), ‘Geographies and politics of localism: The localism of the United Kingdom’s coalition government’, Political Geography, 34, pp. 10–23.
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES (CEC) (1999), European Spatial Development Perspective − Towards Balanced and Sustainable Development of the European Territory, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2005), Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, Council of Europe Treaty Series, No. 199, Faro, 27 X 2005, available at: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/heritage/Identities/default_en.asp
COUNCIL OF EUROPE (2011), Action for a Changing Society, Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, Strasbourg: CoE Publishing.
COUCH, C. (2003), City of change and challenge: Urban planning and regeneration in Liverpool, Aldershot: Ashgate.
COWELL, B. (2004), ‘Why Heritage Counts: Researching the Historic Environment’, Cultural Trends, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 23–39.
DAVIDOFF, P. (1965), ‘Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning’, AIP Journal, November, pp. 331–338.
DEPARTMENT FOR CULTURE, MEDIA AND SPORT (DCMS) (2001), The Historic Environment: A Force for Our Future, London: TSO.
DCMS (2010), Principles of Selection for Listed Buildings, London: TSO.
DEBARY, O. (2004), ‘Deindustrialization and Museumification: From Exhibited Memory to Forgotten History’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 595, ‘Being Here and Being There: Fieldwork Encounters and Ethnographic Discoveries’, September, pp. 122–133.
DENSCOMBE, M. (2007), The Good Research Guide for small-scale social research projects, Third Edition, Maidenhead: OUP / McGraw Hill.
DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (DCLG) (2010), Planning Policy Statement 5: Planning for the Historic Environment (PPS5), London: Communities and Local Government, www.communities.gov.uk/archived/publications/planningandbuilding/pps5
DCLG (2012), National Planning Policy Framework, London: Communities and Local Government.
DCLG (2015), Letter to Miss Hannah Smith, Ove Arup and Partners Ltd., Ref. APP/Z4310/V/13/2206519, available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/395694/15-01-15_DL_IR_Welsh_Street_Liverpool_2206519.pdf
DICKS, B. (2000), Heritage, Place and Community, Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
DoE (1987), Circular 8/87: Historic buildings and conservation areas − policy and procedures, London: HMSO.
DoE (1973), Conservation and Preservation, Local Government Act 1972, Circular 46/73, London: HMSO.
DoE/DNH (1994), Planning Policy Guidance Number 15, Planning and the Historic Environment, London: HMSO.
English Heritage (1998), Conservation-led regeneration: the work of English Heritage, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (1999), The Heritage Dividend: Measuring the Results of English Heritage Regeneration 1994−1999, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2000), Power of Place: The Future of the Historic Environment, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2002), The Heritage Dividend 2002, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2004), Capital solutions, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2005a), The Heritage Dividend methodology: measuring the impact of heritage projects, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage and DEFRA (2005b), Building value: public benefits of historic farm building repair in the Lake District, London: English Heritage & DEFRA.
English Heritage (2006a), Shared interest: celebrating investment in the historic environment, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2006b), Biomass Energy and the Historic Environment, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2007), Regeneration in historic coastal towns, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2008a), Conservation Principles, Policies and Guidance, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2008b), Constructive conservation in practice, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2008c), Climate Change and the Historic Environment, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2008d), Microgeneration in the Historic Environment, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2008e), Energy conservation in traditional buildings, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2011b), Energy Efficiency and Historic Buildings, London: English Heritage.
English Heritage (2012), Good Practice Guide for Local Heritage Listing, London: English Heritage.
FINLAY, B. and BROWN, J. (2011), Housing Scandal! Pathfinder: A Postmortem, London: SAVE Britain’s Heritage, available at: http://www.savebritainsheritage.org/news/campaign.php?id=191
GARCIA, B., MELIVILLE, R. and COX, T. (2010), Creating an impact: Liverpool’s experience as European capital of culture, University of Liverpool and Liverpool.
John Moores University, Liverpool, http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/Papers/Creating_an_Impact_-_web.pdf
GRAHAM, B. (2002), ‘Heritage as knowledge: capital or culture?’, Urban Studies, Vol. 39, No. 5–6, pp. 1003–1017.
HARRISON, R. (2010), ‘Heritage as social action’, [in:] WEST, S. (ed.), Understanding heritage in practice, Manchester University Press in association with the Open University Manchester and Milton Keynes, pp. 240–276.
HEALEY, P. (2004), ‘The treatment of space and place in the new strategic spatial planning in Europe’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, No. 28(1), pp. 45–67.
HEWISON, R. (1987), The heritage industry: Britain in a climate of decline, London: Meltuen London.
HINES, M. (2010), Reviving Britain’s Terraces: Life After Pathfinder, London: SAVE Britain’s Heritage.
HOLYOAK, J. (2010), ‘Birmingham: translating ambition in to quality’, [in:] PUNTER, J. (ed.), Urban Design and the British Urban Renaissance, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 35–50.
HOLMBERG, I. (2002), ‘Theme 1: Heritage, Identity and Urban Regeneration’, [in:] PHELPS, A., ASHWORTH, G. J. and JOHANSSON, B.O.H. (eds.) (2002), The Construction of Built Heritage – A north European perspective on policies, practices and outcomes, Aldershot: Ash-gate, pp. 57–58.
HUDSON, J. and JAMES, P. (2007), ‘The changing framework for conservation of the historic environment’, Structural Survey, Vol. 25, No. 3–4, pp. 253–264.
HUGHES, Q. (1964), Seaport: Architecture and Townscape in Liverpool, London: Lund Humphries.
JOHNSON, M. (2012), ‘Liverpool put on Unesco’s list of endangered World Heritage sites’, Liverpool Daily Post, 27 June 2012, http://www.liverpooldailypost.co.uk/liverpool-news/regional-news/2012/06/27/liverpool-put-on-unesco-s-list-ofendangered-world-heritage-sites-99623-31269362/#ixzz20EURSnzO [accessed 06.05.2015]
JONES, P. (2014), Architecturing Capitalist Futures: Modelling and Claims-making at Liverpool Waters: Working Paper, Liverpool: Department of Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology, University of Liverpool.
LARKHAM, P. J. (1999), ‘Preservation, conservation and heritage: developing concepts and applications’, [in:] CULLINGWORTH, B. (ed.), British Planning: 50 Years of Urban and Regional Policy, London: Athlone.
Liverpool City Council (2005), ‘Report No. EDR/135/05’, presented to Housing and Community Safety Select Committee (Special Meeting), Thursday, 8 September 2005, Liverpool: Liverpool City Council.
Liverpool City Council (2009), Liverpool maritime mercantile city world heritage site – Supplementary planning document consultation draft, March 2009, Liverpool: Liverpool City Council.
LIVERPOOL ECHO (2012), ‘Liverpool Council leader Joe Anderson says city would sacrifice World Heritage status for Liverpool Waters scheme in New Year report’, Liverpool Echo, 2 January, http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/liverpool-council-leader-joe-anderson-3354111 [accessed 06.05.2015].
LUDWIG (2013), From Bricks and Mortar to Social Meanings: a Critical Examination of Local Heritage Designation in England, doctoral thesis, Northumbria University.
LUDWIG, C. and LUDWIG, G. (2014), ‘Empty gestures? A review of the discourses of “localism” from the practitioner’s perspective’, Local Economy, Vol. 29 (3), pp. 245–256.
MASSEY, D. (2014), ‘Liverpool’s maritime mercantile industrial heritage: obsolescence, values and urban regeneration, in Abstracts and Proceeding Papers’, International Symposium on Industrial Heritage, Cultural Industries and Innovative Urban Development, Southeast University, Nanjing, China, 1–2 November 2014.
MORRIS, W. (1877), Manifesto of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, London: Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings.
MORTON, D. (1991), ‘Conservation areas: has saturation point been reached?’, The Planner, Vol. 71, No. 17, pp. 5–8.
MURPHY, L. (2015a), ‘Welsh Streets: Mayor Joe Anderson condemns decision to block demolition’, Liverpool Echo, 16 January, http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/welsh-streets-mayor-joe-anderson-8460931
MURPHY, L. (2015b), ‘Liverpool mayor calls on Eric Pickles to “see the Welsh Streets for himself”’, Liverpool Echo, 20 January, http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/liverpool-mayor-calls-eric-pickles-8482189
NEVIN, B. and LEE, P. (2003), Understanding the Liverpool housing market: Reversing decline and managing change, Birmingham: CURS, University of Birmingham.
PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), Conservation in the Age of Consensus, London: Routledge.
PENDLEBURY, J. (2013), ‘Conservation values, the authorised heritage discourse and the conservation-planning assemblage’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 709–727.
PENDLEBURY, J. and STRANGE, I. (2011), ‘Centenary paper: Urban conservation and the shaping of the English city’, Town Planning Review, 82 (4), pp. 361–392.
PHELPS. A., ASHWORTH, G. J. and JOHANSSON, B.O.H. (eds.) (2002), The Construction of Built Heritage – A north European perspective on policies, practices and outcomes, Aldershot: Ashgate.
POWELL, K. and SAVE (1984), The Agony of Georgian Liverpool, London: SAVE Britain’s Heritage.
PUNTER, J. (ed.), Urban Design and the British Urban Renaissance, Abingdon: Routledge.
RUSKIN, J. (1989 ), The Seven Lamps of Architecture, Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc.
SAMUEL, R. (1994), Theatres of Memory, London: Verso, http://www.savebritainsheritage.org/docs/articles/Welsh%20Street%20Report%20pt%201%201.pdf
SANDERCOCK, L. (2003), ‘Out of the closet: The importance of stories and storytelling in planning practice’, Planning Theory & Practice, 4 (1), pp.11–28.
SAVE (2014), The Welsh Streets Public Inquiry − A report from SAVE Britain’s Heritage on the public inquiry held in June 2014 into an application to demolish 440 houses on Liverpool’s Welsh Streets, London: SAVE Britain’s Heritage.
SELL, S. (2015), ‘Liverpool’s Victorian streets: what the block on demolition means for other places of heritage value’, Planning Resource, 23 January, http://www.planningresource.co.uk/article/1330595/liverpools-victorian-streets-block-demolition-means-places-heritage-value [accessed 09.06.2015].
SHARPLES, J. and STONARD, J. (2008), Built on Commerce: Liverpool’s Central Business, District, Swindon: English Heritage.
SMITH, D. (1969), ‘The Civic Amenities Act: Conservation and Planning’, The Town Planning Review, Vol. 40, No. 2 (July), pp. 149–162.
SMITH, L. (2006), Uses of Heritage, London: Routledge.
SYKES, O., BROWN, J., COCKS, M., SHAW, D. and COUCH, C. (2013), ‘A City Profile of Liverpool’, Cities, 35, pp. 299–318.
TAIT, M. and WHILE, A. (2009), ‘Ontology and the conservation of built heritage’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 27, pp. 721–737.
THORBY, C. (2015), ‘Report of the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government by C. Thorby MRTPI IHBC an inspector appointed by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, 22 September 2014’, Report APP/Z4310/V/13/220651, available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/395694/15-01-15_DL_IR_Welsh_Street_Liverpool_2206519.pdf
TURNPENY, M. (2004), ‘Cultural heritage, an ill-defined concept?: a call for joined-up policy’, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 10 (3), pp. 295–307.
UNESCO (2005), ‘Vienna Memorandum on “World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture − Managing the Historic Urban Landscape” and Decision 29 COM 5D’, available at: http://whc.unesco.org/en/documents/5965 [accessed 08.06.2015).
UNESCO (2011), ‘Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, including a glossary of definitions’, available at: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=48857&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
UNESCO World Heritage Committee (2012), ‘World heritage committee places Liverpool on list of world heritage in danger’, http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/890 [accessed 08.06.2015].
URRY, J. (1990), The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Society, London: SAGE Publications.
WADDINGTON, M. (2012), ‘Housing plans are “Unlawful”’, The Liverpool Post, 20 September, p. 7.
WATERTON, E. (2010), Politics, Policy and the Discourses of Heritage, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
WHILE, A. (2007), ‘The state and the controversial demands of cultural built heritage: modernisation, dirty concrete, and postwar listing in England’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 645–663.