European Spatial Research and Policy


The main focus of the paper is on the container system development in the Baltic Sea Region studying cotemporary changes and organisation, as well as explaining the main driving forces of this situation. The Baltic Sea is a transport corridor between Eastern and Western Europe. Over the last decade maritime transport in the Baltic Sea area has changed significantly. The disintegration of the Soviet Union forced Russia to start developing its own Baltic ports and terminals and to find new routes to export its oil and gas. The Baltic ports have welcomed a remarkable growth, especially in oil transportation and containerised flows. The geographical configuration of the region naturally places it away from major global shipping lines. This situation is accentuated by the organisation of maritime regular lines, centred in Northern European ports. For this reason, the regional container network is mainly made up of feeder services.


the Baltic Sea, containerisation, ports, maritime transport




BAIRD, A. J. (2006), ‘Optimising the container transhipment hub location in northern Europe’, Journal of Transport Geography, 14 (3), pp. 195‒214.

BOLEVICS, V. (2017), ‘The impact of governance on the efficiency of the Baltic States’ major ports’, Journal of Business Management, 14, pp. 7‒26.

CHARLIER, J. (2014), Container traffic at Baltic ports, 1992–2012, and the peripherical ports challenge, 2014 IGU Regional Conference, Krakow, 12‒18 August 2014.

DUCRUET, C. and NOTTEBOOM, T. (2012), The worldwide maritime network of container shipping: Spatial structure and regional dynamics, Global Networks, Wiley, 12 (3), pp. 395‒423.

ESCACH, N. and SERRY, A. (2015), ‘Les méditerranées ou l’émergence de régionalisations réticulaires’, Géographie des mers et des océans, Dunod, pp. 226‒270.

FREMONT, A. (2007), ‘Global Maritime Networks. The case of Maersk’, Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, 15 (6), pp. 431‒442.

GRZYBOWSKI, M. (2013), ‘Development of Logistics Functions in the Baltic Sea Region Ports’, Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, pp. 243‒247.

GUILLAUME, J. (2012), ‘Réorganisation maritimo-portuaire et développement des territoires d’une périphérie intégrée: l’exemple de l’Europe nordique’, Norois, 223, pp. 105‒122.

GULTYAEV, A., MAKOWSKAYA, J., MIKHNEVICH, A. AND NEMANOVA, N. (2018), ‘The seaport of Gdansk as the hub of international trade’, Journal Sepike, Ed. 20, pp. 115‒118.

KABASHKIN, I. (2012), ‘Freight transport logistics in the Baltic Sea Region. Regional aspects’, Transport and Telecommunication, 13 (1), pp. 33‒50.

KOTOWSKA, I. (2014), ‘The Competitiveness of Feeder Shipping Compared to Road Transport’, Journal of Maritime research, XI (3), pp. 21‒26.

LORENTZON, S. (2014), Containerization of the Baltic Sea – A competitive perspective, Working Paper, School of Business, Economics and Law at University of Gothenburg, p. 48.

MAREÏ, N. and DUCRUET, C. (2014), ‘L’intégration économique de la Méditerranée par les réseaux maritimes et portuaires’, Maghreb-Machrek, 220, pp. 11‒33.

MERK, O. (2018), Container Ship Size and Port Relocation, International Transport Forum,

NOTTEBOOM, T. (2004), ‘Container Shipping And Ports: An Overview’, Review of Network Economics, 3 (2), pp. 86‒106.

NOTTEBOOM, T. and RODRIGUE, J. P. (2008), ‘Containerisation, Box Logistics and Global Supply Chains: The Integration of Ports and Liner Shipping Networks’, Maritime Economics & Logistics, 10, Palgrave, pp. 152–174.

OJALA, L. (2017), ‘Maritime transport in the Baltic Sea in 2016’, BSR Policy Briefing 1/2016, pp. 38‒50.

PAVUK, O. (2017), ‘Comparison of port activities of the East Coast of the Baltic Sea: 1996–2016’, Technology audit and production reserves, Vol. 4, 5 (36), pp. 15‒19.

POLAT, O., GÜNTHER, H. O. and KULAK, O. (2014), Maritime Economics & Logistics, Vol. 16, pp. 343‒369.

RODRIGUE, J. P. (2017), The Geography of Transport Systems, New York: Routledge.

RODRIGUE, J. P. and NOTTEBOOM, T. (2010), ‘Foreland-based regionalization: Integrating intermediate hubs with port hinterlands’, Research in Transportation Economics, 27 (1), pp. 19‒29.

RODRIGUE, J. P., COMTOIS, C. and SLACK, B. (2013), The Geography of Transport Systems, 3rd Edition, Routledge.

ROMANOW, P., FRAS, J. and KOLINSKI, A. (2015), ‘Container transport in Poland in logistic supply chain’, Research in Logistics & Production, 5 (1), pp. 43‒51.

SERRY, A. (2016), Feedering and maritime regional markets: the case of the Baltic Sea, In Devport International Conference, Le Havre, May 19–20 2016.

SERRY, A. (2017), Automatic Identification System (AIS) as a Tool to Study Maritime Traffic: the Case of the Baltic Sea, Marine Navigation, CrC Press, pp. 139‒146.

SERRY, A. and ESCACH, N. (2015), ‘Les villes et ports de la Baltique, des interfaces aux portes de l’Europe’, Revue d’études comparatives Est-Ouest, 46 (4), pp. 229‒263.

SEVIN, J. C. (2011), La desserte maritime et terrestre de l’Europe en trafics conteneurisés à l’horizon 2030, Thèse en économie des transports, Conservatoire national des arts et métiers.

THOREZ, P. (2011), ‘Les enjeux portuaires de la Russie en mer Baltique’, Territoire en mouvement, 10, pp. 49‒59.

TOURRET, P. (2008), ‘Le feedering marché spécifique de la conteneurisation’, Note de synthèse n°101 de l’ISEMAR,

URBANYI-POPIOŁEK, I. (2018), Challenges for Polish ferry market development in Baltic Sea Region, In GLOBMAR Conference, Gdansk, 19‒20 April 2018.

VIGARIÉ, A. (1979), Ports de commerce et vie littorale, Paris, Hachette.

WEIGEND, G. G. (1956), ‘The problem of hinterland and foreland as illustrated by the port of Hamburg’, Economic Geography, 32, pp. 1‒15.

WIŚNIEWSKI, S. (2015), ‘Significance of Trans-European Transport Networks for Logistics Centre Localization as Exemplified by the Łódź Region’, European Spatial Research and Policy, 22 (1), pp. 23‒44.

WOLFF, J., HERZ, N. and FLAMIG, H. (2011), Report on Empty Container Management in the Baltic Sea Region: Experiences and Solutions from a Multi-actor Perspective, Hamburg University of Technology, The Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007‒2013.

YUDNIKOVA, E. and ALEKSANDROVA, S. (2016), ‘Evaluation of the resource potential of maritime container terminals of St-Petersburg and Leningrad region’, Russian Journal of Logistics and Transport Management, 3 (2), pp. 3‒11.

First Page


Last Page