https://doi.org/10.18778/1231-1952.26.1.05">
  •  
  •  
 
European Spatial Research and Policy

Abstract

This article reviews the emerging phenomena of electric buses’ deployment in Europe and Belarus within the general framework of the concept of sustainable and electric urban mobility. The author offers a brief overview of electric bus technologies available on the market and a spatial analysis of fleet deployment in Europe. The analysis of the spatial structure of the distribution of e-buses in Europe indicated that, in terms of the number of vehicles in operation, the UK and the Netherlands are the regional leaders, while in terms of the number of cities testing e-buses – Germany, Sweden, and Poland are the leaders. The analysis showed that the main factors supporting the distribution of innovative technology and public support are legislative and regulative framework as well as clear strategic planning and cooperation between local administrations and transportation authorities. Other important aspects, such as network building features, and the location of the charging infrastructure were also discussed. The analysis of the case study of Minsk (the first city to introduce electric buses in Belarus) outlined the typical limiting factors for all types of markets: high battery costs and dependency on infrastructure; recommendations are given to emphasise bus fleet replacement (instead of trolleybus) and to develop a comprehensive sustainable urban mobility strategy.

Keywords

electric buses, new mobility, public transit, sustainable transportation, infrastructure, Minsk, Europe

Language

eng

References

BEKRYL MARKET ANALYSTS, BMA. (2018), ‘Global Electric Bus Market Size Analysis 2018–2028’, Bekryl Market Analysts, USA, https://bekryl.com/industry-trends/electric-bus-market-size-analysis (4.09.2018)

BLOOMBERG NEW ENERGY FINANCE, BNEF. (2018), “Electric Buses in Cities”, Bloomberg Finance L.P.

BOHNEN, C. and LOUEN, C. (2017), ‘Effects of Central or Decentralized Charging Stations for Electric Buses on Route Planning and Travel Time in Public Transport – A Case Study of Aachen, Germany’, REAL CORP 2017 Proceedings/Tagungsband, pp. 171‒181.

BORGHEI, B. and MAGNUSSON, T. (2016), ‘Niche experiments with alternative powertrain technologies: The case of electric city-buses in Europe’, International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 16 (3), pp. 274‒300.

C40 CITIES CLIMATE LEADERSHIP GROUP (2016), ‘C40 Cities Clean Bus Declaration of Intent’, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

C40 CITIES CLIMATE LEADERSHIP GROUP (2016), ‘Low Emission Vehicles. Good Practice Guide’, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

CIVITAS (2013), ‘Policy Note. Smart choices for cities. Clean buses for your city’, TNO, The Netherlands.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2007), ‘Green Paper. Towards a new culture for urban mobility’, European Commission, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52007DC0551&from=EN (15.09.2018)

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2011), ‘White Paper. Roadmap to a single European transport area – Towards a competitive and resource-efficient transport system’, European Comission. https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/themes/strategies/doc/2011_white_paper/white-paper-illustrated-brochure_en.pdf (01.09.2018).

FERNANDO-SANCHEZ, G. and FERNANDEZ-HEREDIA, A. (2018), ‘Strategic Thinking for Sustainability: A Review of 10 Strategies for Sustainable Mobility by Bus for Cities’, Sustainability, 10 (4282), doi:10.3390/su10114282.

FUEL CELLS AND HYDROGEN JOINT UNDERTAKING, FCH JU (2015), ‘Fuel Cell Electric Buses – Potential for Sustainable Public Transport in Europe’, Study by Roland Berger for Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU).

FULTON, L., MASON, J. and MEROUX, D. (2015), ‘Three Revolutions in Urban Transportation’, ITDP, UC Davis, https://www.itdp.org/publication/3rs-in-urban-transport/ (10.09.2018).

GREATER WELLINGTON REGIONAL COUNCIL, GWRC (2014), ‘Evaluating the impact of different bus fleet configurations in the Wellington region’, Public Transport Group, Greater Wellington Regional Council.

HANSON, S. (2003), ‘Transportation: Hooked on Speed, Eyeing Sustainability’, A Companion to Economic Geography, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, pp. 468‒484.

HIROAKI, S, CERVERO, R. and IUCHI, K. (2013), ‘Transforming Cities with Transit: Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development’, World Bank. DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-9745-9 License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0.

HOPKINS, D. and HIGHAM, J. (2016), ‘Transitioning to Low Carbon Mobility’, Low Carbon Mobility Transitions, Goodfellow Publishers Limited, pp. 2‒12.

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT, UITP (2015), ‘Bus Systems in Europe: Towards a Higher Quality of Urban Life and a Reduction of Pollutants and CO₂ Emissions’, UITP Position Paper.

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY, IEA (2018), ‘Global EV Outlook 2018. Towards cross-modal electrification’, OECD/IEA, 143 p., https://webstore.iea.org/download/direct/1045?filename=global_ev_outlook_2018.pdf (20.09.2018).

KINLEY, R. (2017), ‘Climate Change after Paris: From turning point to transformation’, Climate Policy, 17, pp. 9–15.

KUNITH, A., MENDELEVITCH, R. and GOEHLICH, D. (2016), ‘Electrification of a city bus network: An optimization model for cost-effective placing of charging infrastructure and battery sizing of fast charging electric bus systems’, Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) Discussion Papers, 1577.

MAHMOUD, M. GARNETT, R., FERGUSON, M. and KANAROGLOU, P. (2016), ‘Electric buses: A review of alternative powertrains’, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Review, 62, pp. 673‒684.

MILLER, J. (2016), ‘Reducing CO2 emissions from road transport in the European Union: An evaluation of policy options’, International Council on Clean Transportation.

MILLO, F., ROLANDO, L., FUSO, R. and MALLAMO, F. (2014), ‘Real CO2 emissions benefits and end user’s operating costs of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle’, Applied Energy, 114, pp. 563–571.

MINSKGRADO (2016), ‘Minsk City Master Plan (until 2030)’, Minsk City Executive Committee, Committee of Architecture and City Planning, Minskgrado, https://minsk.gov.by/share/2010/04/08/data/20161012.generalplan.main.pdf (20.01.2019).

MONTERO, S. (2017), ‘Worlding Bogotá’s Ciclovía: from urban experiment to international ‘Best Practice’’, Latin American Perspectives, 44 (2), pp. 111–131.

MWASILU, F., JUSTO, J. J., KIM, E. K., DO, T. D., and JUNG, J. (2014), ‘Electric vehicles and smart grid interaction: A review on vehicle to grid and renewable energy sources integration’, Sustainable Energy Review, 34, pp. 501–516.

NIKITAS, A., KOUGIAS, I., ALYAVINA, E. and TCHOUAMOU NJOUA, E. (2017), ‘How Can Autonomous and Connected Vehicles, Electromobility, BRT, Hyperloop, Shared Use Mobility and Mobility-As-A-Service Shape Transport Futures for the Context of Smart Cities?’, Urban Science, 1, p. 36.

PERROTTA, D., MACEDO, J. L., ROSSETTI, R. J., de SOUSA, J. F., KOKKINOGENIS, Z., RIBEIRO, B. and AFONSO, J. L. (2014), ‘Route planning for electric buses: a case study in Oporto’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 111, pp. 1004–1014.

REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER, REC (2008), ‘Sustainable Transport Policies in South Eastern Europe’, REC.

RODRIGUE, J.-P., COMTOIS, C. and SLACK, B. (2017), The Geography of Transport Systems, 4th edition, New York: Routledge, p. 440, https://transportgeography.org/ (20.01.2019).

SANTOS, D., KOKKINOGENIS, Z., de SOUSA, J. F., PERROTTA, D. and ROSSETTI, R. J. F. (2016), ‘Towards the Integration of Electric Buses in Conventional Bus Fleets’, 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC) Windsor, pp. 1‒4.

TACZANOWSKI, J., KOŁOŚ, A., GWOSDZ, K., DOMAŃSKI, B. and GUZIK, R. (2018), ‘The development of low-emission public urban transport in Poland’, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, 41, pp. 79‒92.

TRANSPORT & ENVIRONMENT (2018), ‘Electric Buses Arrive on Time, Marketplace, economic, technology, environmental and policy perspectives for fully electric buses in the EU’, Transport & Environment.

UNITED NATIONS, UN (2018), ‘World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision. Key Facts’, United Nations, p. 2, https://population.un.org/wup/ (20.09.2018).

WORLD BANK (2017), ‘Global Mobility Report 2017: Tracking Sector Performance’, World Bank Group, https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/28542/120500.pdf?sequence=6 (30.09.2018).

XYLIA, M., LEDUC, S., PATRIZIO, P., KRAXNER, F. and SILVEIRA, S. (2017), ‘Locating charging infrastructure for electric buses in Stockholm’, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 78, pp. 183‒200.

ZeEUS (2018), ‘ZeEUS eBus Report #2. An updated overview of electric buses in Europe’, ZeEUS, p. 178, http://zeeus.eu/uploads/publications/documents/zeeus-report2017-2018-final.pdf (15.09.2018).

http://urbanist.by/electrobus/ (Minsk Urban Platform, MUP, 2018)

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/08/14/urban-transport-and-climate-change

https://bkm.by/en/catalog/elektrobus-modeli-e433-vitovt-max-electro/

https://by.odb-office.eu/ekspertyza_/transpart/voprosy-uluchsheniya-transportnoy-sistemy-rassmotreny-na-seminare-v-minske (30.01.2019)

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2018-08-30/shenzhen-the-first-quieter-megacity-thanks-to-electric-vehicles

https://www.mazbus.ru/maz_215.html

First Page

81

Last Page

99

Language

eng

Share

COinS