Internal migration in Italy increased in the 2000s due to foreigners residing in the country. Foreigners have changed the characteristics of Italy’s internal migration. Extended gravity models were run to highlight the differences between the migratory behaviours of Italians and foreigners. The model was implemented to detect the different effects of the Italian and foreign populations, and the distances between the provinces of origin and destinations of the inter-provincial migration of Italians and foreigners. Estimations obtained for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 highlight the different evolutions of the phenomenon.
Internal migration, foreign population, gravity model, Italy
ADEY, P. (2009), Migration, New York: Routledge.
ALBA, R. and NEE, V. (1997), ‘Rethinking assimilation theory for a new era of immigration’, International Migration Review, 31 (4), pp. 826‒874.
ANDERSSON, R. (2012), ‘Understanding Ethnic Minorities’ Settlement and Geographical Migration Patterns in Sweden Using Longitudinal Data’, [in:] FINNEY N. and CATNEY G. (eds.), Minority Internal Migration in Europe, pp. 263‒291, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, International Population Studies Series.
BELANGER, A. and ROGERS, A. (2009), ‘The Internal Migration and Spatial Redistribution of the Foreign Born Population in the United States: 1965–70 and 1975–80’, International Migration Review, 26 (4), pp. 1342‒1369.
BEINE, M., BERTOLI, S. and FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA, J. (2015), ‘A practitioners’ guide to gravity models of international migration’, The World Economy.
BERTOLI, S. and FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA, J. (2015), ‘The size of the cliff at the border’, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 51, pp. 1‒6.
BIAGI, B., FAGGIAN, A. and MCCANN, P. (2011), ‘Long and short distance migration in Italy: the role of economic, social and environmental characteristics’, Spatial Economic Analysis, 6 (1), pp. 111‒131.
BONAGUIDI, A. (ed.) (1985), Migrazioni e demografia regionale in Italia, Milano: Franco Angeli.
BONIFAZI, C. (1998), L’immigrazione straniera in Italia, I ed., Bologna: Il Mulino.
BONIFAZI, C. (2007), L’immigrazione straniera in Italia, II ed., Bologna: Il Mulino.
BONIFAZI, C. (2013), L’Italia delle migrazioni, Bologna: Il Mulino.
BONIFAZI, C. (ed.) (1999), Mezzogiorno e migrazioni interne, Rome: IRP-Monografie.
BONIFAZI, C. and MARINI, C. (2010), ‘The irresistible growth of immigration in Italy’, Rivista italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, 65 (3–4), pp. 57‒78.
BONIFAZI, C., HEINS, F. and TUCCI, E. (2012), ‘Le migrazioni interne degli stranieri al tempo dell’immigrazione’, Meridiana, 75, pp. 1‒18.
BONIFAZI, C., HEINS, F. and TUCCI, E. (2014), ‘Le migrazioni interne degli stranieri in Italia nel 2011–12’, [in:] Colucci M. and Gallo S. (eds.), L’arte di spostarsi in Italia Rapporto 2014 sulle migrazioni interne in Italia, pp. 3–20, Rome: Donzelli Editore.
BORJAS, G. J. (2006), ‘Native internal migration and the labor market impact of immigration’, Journal of Human Resources, 41 (2), pp. 221‒258.
BRÜCKER, H., FACHIN, S. and VENTURINI, A. (2011), ‘Do foreigners replace native immigrants? A panel cointegration analysis of internal migration in Italy’, Economic Modelling, 28 (3), pp. 1078‒1089.
CANGIANO, A. and STROZZA, S. (2005), ‘Gli immigrati extracomunitari nei mercati del lavoro italiani: alcune evidenze empiriche a livello territoriale’, Economia and Lavoro, XXXIX (1), pp. 89‒124.
CARD, D. (2001), ‘Immigrant inflows, native outflows, and the local labor market impacts of higher immigration’, Journal of Labor Economics, 19, pp. 22–64.
CASACCHIA, O. and TAGLIARINI, D. (2000), ‘Una lettura dei flussi in entrata da Roma negli anni 1990-95 attraverso il modello gravitazionale’, [in:] Proceedings of the XL Scientific Meeting of Italian Statistical Society, pp. 115‒119, Firenze: SIS.
CASACCHIA, O., CASSATA, L., GIORGI, P., REYNAUD, C. and STROZZA, S. (2010a), ‘La mobilità interna in Italia: le principali caratteristiche dei cambiamenti di residenza’, Rivista italiana di economia demografia e statistica, LXIV (1–2), pp. 63‒70.
CASACCHIA, O., GIORGI, P., REYNAUD, C., STROZZA, S. and TUCCI, E. (2010b), ‘Italians’ and Foreigners’ Internal Migration in Italy: an Application of Gravitational Models’, [in:] Proceedings of the 45th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society, Padua: SIS.
COLUCCI, M. and GALLO, S. (2014), L’arte di spostarsi in Italia. Rapporto 2014 sulle migrazioni interne in Italia, Rome: Donzelli Editore.
COLUCCI, M. and GALLO, S. (2015), Tempo di cambiare. Rapporto 2015 sulle migrazioni interne in Italia, Rome: Donzelli Editore.
COLUCCI, M. and GALLO, S. (2016), Fare Spazio. Rapporto 2016 sulle migrazioni interne in Italia, Rome: Donzelli Editore.
CONGDON, P. (1992), ‘Aspects of General Linear Modelling of Migration’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series D (The Statistician), 41 (2), pp. 133‒153.
DE FILIPPO, E. and STROZZA, S., (2011), ‘Le migrazioni interne degli stranieri in Italia’, Sociologia del Lavoro, 121, pp. 68‒95.
DE SANTIS, G. (2010a), Demografia, Bologna: Il Mulino.
DE SANTIS, G. (2010b), ‘Mobilità a corto e a lungo raggio e pendolarismo della popolazione italiana’, [in:] LIVI BACCI, M. (ed.), Demografia del capitale umano, pp. 123‒138, Bologna: Il Mulino.
ELLIS, M. (2012), ‘Reinventing US internal migration studies in the age of international migration’, Population, Space and Place, 18 (2), pp. 196‒208.
ETZO, I. (2008), ‘Internal migration: a review of the literature’, MPRA Paper, 8783.
ETZO, I. (2011), ‘The determinants of the recent interregional migration flows in Italy: A panel data analysis’, Journal of Regional Science, 51, pp. 948–966.
FINNEY, N. and CATNEY, G. (eds.) (2012), Minority Internal Migration in Europe, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, International Population Studies Series.
FINNEY, N. and SIMPSON, L. (2008), ‘Internal Migration and Ethnic Groups: Evidence for Britain from the 2001 Census’, Population Space and Place, 14, pp. 63–83.
FLORES, M., ZEY, M. and HOQUE, N. (2013), ‘Economic liberalization and contemporary determinants of Mexico’s internal migration: an application of spatial gravity models’, Spatial Economic Analysis, 8 (2), pp. 195‒214.
FLOWERDEW, R. (2004), ‘Introduction: Internal migration in the contemporary world’, Regional Studies, 38 (6), pp. 615‒616.
FLOWERDEW, R. and AITKIN, M. (1982), ‘A method of fitting the gravity model based on the Poisson distribution’, Journal of Regional Science, 22 (2), pp. 191‒202.
FOOT, D. K. and MILNE, W. J. (1984), ‘Net Migration Estimation in an extended multiregional gravity model’, Journal of Regional Science, 24, pp. 119‒133.
FOTHERINGHAM, A. S. and O’KELLY, M. E. (1989), Spatial interaction models: formulations and applications, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
FRATESI, U. and PERCOCO, M. (2014), ‘Selective migration, regional growth and convergence: evidence from Italy’, Regional Studies, 48 (10), pp. 1650‒1668.
FREY, W. H. (1995), ‘Immigration and Internal Migration ‘Flight’ from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation’, Urban Studies, 32 (4–5), pp. 733‒757.
FREY, W. H. (1996), ‘Immigration, domestic migration, and demographic balkanization in Ame¬rica: new evidence for the 1990s’, Population and Development Review, 22(4), pp. 741‒763.
GARCIA, A. J., PINDOLIA, D. K., LOPIANO, K. K. and TATEM, A. J. (2015), ‘Modeling internal migration flows in sub-Saharan Africa using census microdata’, Migration Studies, 3 (1), pp. 89‒110.
GOLINI, A. (1974), Distribuzione della popolazione migrazioni interne e urbanizzazione in Italia, Rome: Facoltà di Scienze Statistiche Demografiche e Attuariali, Università di Roma.
GOLINI, A. and REYNAUD, C. (2010), ‘South-north movements in Italy forty years later’, Rivista Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, LXIV (3), pp. 101‒122.
GÓMEZ-HERRERA, E. (2013), ‘Comparing alternative methods to estimate gravity models of bilateral trade’, Empirical Economics, 44 (3), pp. 1087‒1111.
GORDON, M. M. (1964), Assimilation in American Life. The Role of Race Religion and National Origin, New York: Oxford University Press.
GREENWOOD, M. J. (1997), ‘Internal migration in developed countries’, [in:] ROSENZWEIG, M. R. and STARK, O. (eds.), Handbook of Population and Family Economics, 1B, pp. 648‒720, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
GRODZINS, M. (1958), The Metropolitan Area as a Racial Problem, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
GURAK, D. T. and KRITZ, M. M. (2000), ‘The Interstate Migration of US Immigrants: Individual and Contextual Determinants’, Social Forces, 78 (3), pp. 1017‒1039.
IMPICCIATORE, R. and STROZZA, S. (2016a), ‘Internal and International Migration in Italy. An Integrating Approach Based on Administrative Data’, Polis, 30 (2), pp. 211‒238.
IMPICCIATORE, R. and STROZZA, S. (2016b), ‘Lasciare il Mezzogiorno’, Il Mulino, 65 (1), pp. 125‒132.
ISTAT (2012), Definitions sources and measures for internal migration and secondary migration: a focus on non-EU citizens. WP 20 Geneve: Economic Commission for Europe Conference of Euro¬pean Statisticians – Group of Experts on Migration Statistics Work Session on Migration Statistics https://wwwuneceorg/fileadmin/DAM/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge10/2012/WP_20_Italypdf.
KIM, K. and COHEN, J. L. (2010), ‘Determinants of International Migration Flows to and from Industrialized Countries: A Panel Data Approach Beyond Gravity’, International Immigration Review, 44 (4), pp. 899–932.
KRITZ, M. M. and GURAK, D. T. (2001), ‘Nativity Concentration and Internal Migration among the Foreign-Born’, Demography, 31 (3), pp. 509‒524.
KRITZ, M. M. and NOGLE, J. M. (1994), ‘The Impact of Immigration on the Internal Migration of Natives and Immigrants’, Demography, 38 (1), pp. 133‒145.
KULU, H., LUNDHOLM, E. and MALMBERG, G. (2018), ‘Is spatial mobility on the rise or in decline? An order-specific analysis of the migration of young adults in Sweden’, Population Studies, 1‒15.
LAMONICA, G. R. and ZAGAGLIA, B. (2011), ‘Le cause della mobilità interna in Italia: italiani e stranieri a confronto’, Neodemos, July. http://www.neodemos.info.
LAMONICA, G. R. and ZAGAGLIA, B. (2013), ‘The determinants of internal migration in Italy 1995-2006: A comparison of Italians and resident foreigners’, Demographic Research, 29, pp. 407‒440.
LEWER, J. J. and VAN DEN BERG, H. (2008), ‘A gravity model of immigration’, Economics Letters, 99 (1), pp. 164‒167.
LICHTER, D. T. and JOHNSON, K. M. (2009), ‘Immigrant Gateways and Hispanic Migration to New Destinations’, International Migration Review, 43 (3), pp. 496‒418.
LIVI BACCI, M., ABBATE, M., De SANTIS, G., GIOVANNELLI, C. and Ricci, R. (1996), ‘Mobilità e territorio’, [in:] GALLI G. (ed.) La mobilità della società italiana: le persone le imprese le istituzioni, SITI (volume I), Milan: Confindustria.
LONG, J. F. (1985), ‘Migration and the phases of population redistribution’, Journal of Development Economics, 17, pp. 29‒42.
MASSEY, D. S. (1985), ‘Ethnic residential segregation: a theoretical and empirical synthesis’, Sociology and Social Research, 69, pp. 315‒350.
MASSEY, D. S. (1988), ‘Economic development and international migration in comparative perspective’, Population and Development Review, 14 (3), pp. 383‒413.
MENCARINI, L. (1996), ‘Rassegna degli studi sulla mobilita interna italiana nei primi anni ‘90’, Genus, LII, pp. 173‒188.
MENCARINI, L. (1999), ‘Le migrazioni interne meridionali nelle ricerche dell’ultimo ventennio’, [in:] BONIFAZI, C. (ed.), Mezzogiorno e migrazioni interne, pp. 17‒51, Rome: IRP-Monografie.
METULINI, R., PATUELLI, R. and GRIFFITH, D. A. (2018), ‘A spatial-filtering zero-inflated approach to the estimation of the gravity model of trade’, Econometrics, 6 (1).
MOCETTI, S. and PORELLO, C. (2010), ‘How does immigration affect native internal mobility? New evidence from Italy’, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 40 (6), pp. 427‒439.
NATALE, M. and STROZZA, S. (1997), Gli immigrati stranieri in Italia. Quanti sono chi sono dove vivono?, Bari: Carocci.
NIEDOMYSL, T. (2011), ‘How migration motives change over migration distance: evidence on variation across socio-economic and demographic groups’, Regional Studies, 45 (6), pp. 843‒855.
PEACH, C. (1996), ‘Does Britain have ghettos?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21 (1), pp. 216‒235.
PIRAS, R. (2012), ‘Internal migration across Italian regions: macroeconomic determinants and accommodating potential for a dualistic economy’, The Manchester School, 80 (4), pp. 499‒524.
PIRAS, R. (2017), ‘A long‐run analysis of push and pull factors of internal migration in Italy. Estimation of a gravity model with human capital using homogeneous and heterogeneous approaches’, Papers in Regional Science, 96 (3), pp. 571‒602.
PIRAS, R., and MELIS, S. (2007), ‘Evoluzione e tendenze delle migrazioni interne’, Economia Italiana, 2, pp. 437–469.
POOT, J., ALIMI, A., CAMERON, M. P., and MARÉ, D. C., (2016), ‘The gravity model of migration: the successful comeback of an ageing superstar in regional science’, Investigaciones Regionales – Journal of Regional Research, 36, pp. 63–86.
POULAIN, M., and VAN GOETHEM, B. (1980), Long-term development of internal migration of the Belgian population from 1948 to 1978.
PUGLIESE, E. (2006), L’Italia tra migrazioni internazionali e migrazioni interne, Bologna: Il Mulino.
RAMOS, R. (2016), ‘Gravity models: a tool for migration analysis’, IZA World of Labor.
RECAÑO-VALVERDE, J., and DE MIGUEL-LUKEN, V. (2012), ‘The Internal Migration of Foreign-Born Population in Southern Europe: Demographic Patterns and Individual Determinants’, [in:] FINNEY E. and CATNEY G. (eds.), Minority Internal Migration in Europe, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, International Population Studies Series, pp. 239‒261.
REES, P., BELL, M., KUPISZEWSKI, M., KUPISZEWSKA, D., UEFFING, P., BERNARD, A. and STILLWELL J., (2017), ‘The impact of internal migration on population redistribution: An international comparison’, Population, Space and Place, 23 (6), pp. 1–22.
REYNAUD, C. and TUCCI, E. (2014), ‘Internal migration in Italy: a new delay’, Stanovništvo (Population), 2, pp. 21‒42.
ŞAKA, B. (2012), ‘Internal Migration of ethnic minorities – Evidence from Western Germany’, SOEP (the German Socio-Economic Panel Study) Papers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research, 495, Berlin: DIW.
SANTOS-SILVA, J. M. C. and TENREYRO, S. (2011), ‘Further simulation evidence on the performance of the Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood estimator’, Economics Letters, 112, pp. 220–222.
SARGENTO MARTO, A. L. (2007), ‘Empirical Examination of the Gravity Model in two Different Contexts: Estimation and Explanation’, Jahrbuch fur Regionalwissenschaft, 27 (2), pp. 103–127.
SILVESTRE, J. and REHER, D. S. (2014), ‘The Internal Migration of Immigrants: Differences between One-Time and Multiple Movers in Spain’, Population Space and Place, 20 (1), pp. 50‒65.
SOBOTKA, T. (2009), ‘Migration continent Europe’, Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, pp. 217‒233.
STROZZA, S. (2010), ‘International migration in Europe in the first decade of the 21st century’, Rivista Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, LXIV (3), pp. 7‒43.
STROZZA, S. and DE SANTIS, G. (eds.) (2017), Rapporto sulla popolazione: le molte facce della presenza straniera in Italia, Bologna: Il Mulino.
VAN DER GAAG, N., VAN WISSEN, L., REES, P., STILLWELL J. and KUPISZEWSKI, M. (2003), Study of past and future interregional migration trends and patterns within European Union countries: in search of a generally applicable explanatory model, Eurostat.
VAN HAM, M. and FEIJTEN, P. M. (2008), ‘Who wants to leave the neighbourhood? The effect of being different from the neighbourhood population on wishes to move’, Environment and Planning A, 40 (5), pp. 1151‒1170.
VAN LOTTUM, J. and MARKS, D. (2012), ‘The determinants of internal migration in a developing country: quantitative evidence for Indonesia, 1930–2000’, Applied Economics, 44 (34), pp. 4485‒4494.
VIDAL, S. and WINDZIO, M. (2012), ‘Internal Migration of Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in Germany’, [in:] FINNEY N. and CATNEY G. (eds.), Minority Internal Migration in Europe, pp. 151‒174, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, International Population Studies Series.
WAJDI, N., ADIOETOMO, S. M. and MULDER, C. (2017), ‘Gravity Models of Interregional Migration in Indonesia’, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 53 (3), pp. 309‒332.
WHITE, M. J. and HUNTER, L. M. (1993), ‘The Migratory Response of Native-Born Workers to the Presence of Immigrants in the Labor Market’, [in:] Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Cincinnati: Population Association of America.
WRIGHT, R., ELLIS, M. and PARKS, V. (2005), ‘Re-Placing Whiteness in Spatial Assimilation Research’, City and Community, 4 (2), pp. 111‒135.