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Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Biologica et Oecologica

Abstract

Air is a natural environment for spores of many genera and species of fungi. Despite its small size and a significant dispersion they have a great impact on human health and different areas of our activities, such as agricultural production. The study on spores of fungi that belong to aeroplankton or bioaerosole is called aeromycology. The most frequent fungi present in the air are Cladosporium and Alternaria species. Their numbers are abundant regardless of latitude and height above the sea level and above the ground. They mostly originate from agricultural environment. Other frequently listed species of fungi, whose spores are present in the air include of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Sclerotinia and Ganoderma. The concentration of spores in the air strongly depends on the abundance of their formation during the studied period. This in turn relates to geobotanical region, vegetation, degree of urbanization, climatic conditions, season, current weather, wind force and direction, local microclimate, and many other factors. Changes in humidity affect the concentration of different types of fungal spores. In general they are divided to ‘dry’ (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Puccinia, Ustilago, Melampsora, Epicoccum, Drechslera) and ‘wet’ (Didymella, Fusarium, Ganoderma, Gliocladium, Leptosphaeria, Verticillium). Study of the composition of species and genera are being done using different types of spore samplers, mostly volumetric instruments. Visual identification is based on colony morphology of the fungus and the shape and size of spores. The identification at the species level is possible with molecular tools. Methods based on DNA/RNA amplification are very sensitive and accurate. They allow the identification below the species level, e.g. chemotypes, mating types or isolates with genes or alleles of interest. Aerobiological monitoring is widely used in the epidemiology of human diseases (inhalant allergies) and infections of arable crops (decision support systems for the protection of cultivated plants). Aeromycology is interconnected with such diverse areas as industrial aerobiology, bioterrorism, ecology, climatology or even speleology and cultural heritage.

Polish Abstract

Powietrze jest naturalnym środowiskiem dla zarodników licznych rodzajów i gatunków grzybów. Pomimo niewielkich rozmiarów i znacznego rozproszenia mają one wielki wpływ na zdrowie ludzi i różne kierunki ich działalności, w tym w szczególności na produkcję rolniczą. Badania nad zarodnikami grzybów stanowiącymi część aeroplanktonu są przedmiotem aeromykologii. Niezależnie od szerokości geograficznej i wysokości nad poziomem morza w powietrzu szczególnie często występują grzyby z rodzajów Cladosporium i Alternaria, a ich źródłem jest najczęściej środowisko rolnicze. Innymi często notowanymi rodzajami grzybów, których zarodniki występują w powietrzu są m.in. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Sclerotinia i Ganoderma. Stężenie zarodników w powietrzu jest ściśle uzależnione od obfitości ich tworzenia w danym okresie, co jest pochodną regionu geobotanicznego, szaty roślinnej, stopnia zurbanizowania danej lokalizacji, warunków klimatycznych, pory roku, aktualnej pogody, siły i kierunku wiatru, lokalnego mikroklimatu i wielu innych czynników. Zmiany wilgotności powietrza wpływają na stężenie zarodników różnych rodzajów grzybów, określanych na tej podstawie jako „suche” (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Puccinia, Ustilago, Melampsora, Epicoccum, Drechslera) lub „mokre” (Didymella, Fusarium, Ganoderma, Gliocladium, Leptosphaeria, Verticillium). Badania składu rodzajowego i gatunkowego prowadzone są przy zastosowaniu różnego rodzaju chwytaczy zarodników, a identyfikacja wizualna na podstawie morfologii kolonii grzyba oraz kształtu i wymiarów zarodników uzupełniana jest obecnie przez wyjątkowo czułe metody detekcji molekularnej, specyficzne względem rodzajów, gatunków, chemotypów, a nawet składu genów i kompozycji poszczególnych alleli. Monitoring aerobiologiczny znajduje bezpośrednie wykorzystanie w epidemiologii chorób ludzi (alergologia) i roślin uprawnych (systemy wspierania decyzji w ochronie roślin uprawnych). Badania z zakresu aeromykologii znajdują zastosowanie w tak różnych kierunkach jak aerobiologia przemysłowa, bioterroryzm, ekologia, dziedzictwo kulturowe, klimatologia lub speleologia.

Keywords

aerobiology, aeromycology, aeroplankton, Alternaria, Cladosporium

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Last Page

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Language

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