On July 22, 2011 Anders Breivik murdered a large amount of people in Norway. In this study we investigate a sample of articles that were published about Breivik and his deeds in the Flemish and Dutch press. We will investigate these articles looking for the so-called “attribution of responsibility frame.” The murders from Breivik could be explained psychologically (“he is insane”) as well as sociologically (far-right political parties are responsible because of having spread hate speech). We present a typology of subtypes of frames. We will furthermore investigate how many times these types of frames occur in different media outlets.
Breivik, framing, content analysis, newspapers, causal attributions, ideology
Entman, R., “Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm.” Journal of Communication, 43 (1993): 51-58.
Fairclough, N., Media Discourse. Arnold: London / Sydney / Auckland, 1995.
Gautier, T., “De journalistiek moet her-ideologiseren.” De nieuwe reporter. (October, 2014): Web 31 January 2015 http://www.denieuwereporter.nl/2014/10/de-journalistiek-moet-herideologiseren/
Haider-Markel, D., Joslyn, M.R. “Gun Policy, Opinion, Tragedy, and Blame Attribution: The Conditional Influence of Issue Frames” Journal of Politics, 63.2. (2001): 520-543.
Hallin, D.C., Mancini, P. Comparing media systems. Three models of media and politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Hijmans, E., Schafraad, P., Buijs, K. and d’Haenens, L. “Wie schrijft ons nieuws? Een analyse van voorverpakt nieuws en brontransparantie in binnenlandse nieuwsonderwerpen in vier Nederlandse en Vlaamse kwaliteitskranten.” Tijdschrift voor Communicatiewetenschap [Journal for Communication Science], 39.2 (2011): 77-91.
Melle, I., “The Breivik case and what psychiatrists can learn from it.” World Psychiatry., 12.1 (2013):16-21.
Millet, R., Langue fantôme, suivi de Éloge littéraire d’Anders Breivik. Paris: Éditions Pierre-Guillaume de Roux, 2012.
Noymer, A., “Alpha, significance level of test.” Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods P. J. Lavrakas (Ed.) London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage, 2008. Obijofor, L. and Hanusch, F. Journalism across cultures: an introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Poole, E., Richardson, J.E., (Eds.) Muslims and The News Media. London / New York: I.B.Tauris, 2006
Semetko, H., Valkenburg, P., “Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news.” Journal of Communication, 50.2 (2000): 93-109.
Zimbardo, P., The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House, 2007.
Zizek, S. “What does Europe want? Beyond the multiculturalist deadlock.” ABC Religion qnd Ethics (24 July 2012): Web 31 January http://www.lacan.com/thesymptom/?page_id=2310