International Studies: Interdisciplinary Cultural and Political Journal


For many years, indigenous peoples, their rights, culture and identity have been neglected. This depressing statement also refers to the Sami who reside in the Arctic. This paper presents the understanding of the term “indigenous peoples” and a number of their rights, including the right to selfdetermination. Their implementation is necessary for human security as they empower indigenous peoples to make decisions in matters that affect them. The author examines the concept of human security and the threats to this security in the Arctic in particular to the Sami as well as the most important provisions in international legal documents regarding the rights of indigenous peoples which include references to human security.


indigenous peoples, human security, the Arctic, the Sami, self-determination


Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Impact of a Warming Arctic. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004.

Göttsche, D., Introduction, [in] (Post-) Colonialism across Europe Transcultural History and National Memory, eds. D. Göttsche, A. Dunker, Aisthesis Verlag, Bielefeld 2014.

Jokela, J. (ed.). Arctic security matters. ISS Report No. 24: 2015.

Kutz, Ch., Democratic Security. [in] Security: A Multidisciplinary Normative Approach, ed. C. M. Bailliet, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden-Boston 2009.

Kuźniar, R., Prawa człowieka. Prawo instytucje, stosunki międzynarodowe. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar, Warszawa 2002.

Thakur, R., The United Nations, Peace and Security. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2006.

Tigerstrom von, B., Human Security and International Law. Prospects and Problems. Hart Publishing, Oxford and Portland 2007.

Tigerstrom von, B., International Law and the Concept of Human Security. [in] The Challenge of Conflict: International Law Responses, eds. U. Dolgopol, J. Gardam, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden 2006.

Urbanek, A., Współczesny człowiek w przestrzeni bezpieczeństwa: w poszukiwaniu teoretyczności bezpieczeństwa personalnego. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pomorskiej, Słupsk 2015.

Baer, L.-A., The Rights of Indigenous Peoples – A Brief Introduction in the Context of the Sámi, “International Journal on Minority and Group Rights”, 12 (2005), pp. 245–268.

Bergh, K., The Arctic Policies of Canada and the United States: Domestic Motives and International Context, “SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security”, 1 (2012) pp. 1–19.

Daes, E.-I., The concepts of self-determination and autonomy of Indigenous Peoples in the Draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, “St. Thomas Law Review”, 14 (2001), pp. 259–269.

Fitzmaurice, M., The New Developments Regarding the Saami Peoples of the North, “International Journal on Minority and Group Rights”, 16 (2009), pp. 67–156.

Goldberg, D.M., Badua, T., Do People Have Standing? Indigenous Peoples, Global Warming, And Human Rights, “Barry Law Review”, 11 (2008), pp. 59–76.

Graver, H. P., Ulfstein G., The Sami People’s Right to Land in Norway, “International Journal on Minority and Group Rights”, 11 (2004), pp. 337–377.

Hossein, K., Securing the Rights: A Human Security Perspective in the Context of Arctic Indigenous Peoples, “The Yearbook of Polar Law”, V (2012), pp. 493–522.

Kuokkanen, R. Self-determination and Indigenous Women – “Whose Voice Is It we Hear in the Sámi Parliament? “International Journal on Minority and Group Rights”, 18 (2011), pp. 39–62.

Minde, H., Sami Land Rights In Norway: A Test Case for Indigenous Peoples, “International Journal on Minority and Group Rights”, 8 (2001), pp. 107–125.

Okafor, O. Ch., Entitlement, Process, and Legitimacy in the Emergent International Law of Secession, “International Journal on Minority and Group Rights”, 9 (2002), pp. 41–70.

Thisted, K., De-Framing the Indigenous Body. Ethnography, Landscape and Cultural Belonging in the Art of Pia Arke, “Nordlit”, 29 (2012), pp. 279–298.

Arctic Human Development Report. Regional Processes and Global Linkages. “Nordic Council of Ministers” (2014), 28 March 2016 library.arcticportal.org/1840/1/AHDRFULLTEXT01.pdf

Bunikowski, D., Sámi Reindeer Husbandry – Legal-Philosophical and Cultural-Anthropological Dimensions, 30 March 2016 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2725403

Christensen K., Sørensen J., The Forced Relocation of the Indigenous People of Uummannaq, or How to Silence a Minority, “Humanity in Action” (30 March 2016) https://www.google.pl/search?q=thule+base+greenlnad&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=TBDtVu-MHYb36AS-rYjwCQ#q=thule+base+greenland+indigenous+peoples

Common Purpose Towards a More Effective OSCE. Final Report and Recommendations of the Eminent Persons on Strengthening the Effectiveness of the OSCE (27 June 2005), 28 March 2016, http://www.osce.org/cio/15805

Graeves, W., Arctic Insecurity and Indigenous Peoples: Comparing Inuit in Canada and Sámi in Norway (2015), 28 March 2016 https://ecpr.eu/Filestore/PaperProposal/e2e01c98–9117–4c83–9d51–7afaf14058c7.pdf

Huebert, R., Exner-Pirot H., Lajeunesse A., Gulledge J. Climate Change & International Security: The Arctic as a Bellwether (May 2012), 30 March 2016 http://www.c2es.org/publications/climate-change-international-arctic-security

Human Development Report 1993, 28 March 2016 http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1993

Human Development Report 1994, 28 March 2016, http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-report-1994

Koivurova, T., Increasing Relevance of Treaties: The Case of the Arctic, “AJIL Unbound” (May 6, 2014), 28 March 2016 http://www.asil.org/blogs/increasing-relevance-treaties-case-arctic-agora-end-treaties

Loukacheva, N. On Autonomy and Law, “Working Paper Series” (June 2005) 28 March 2016 https://www.socialsciences.mcmaster.ca/institute-on-globalization-and-the-human-condition/documents/IGHC-WPS_05 –3_Loukacheva.pdf

Sami in Sweden. Preserving indigenous culture in the Arctic. Facts about Sweden, 28 March 2016 https://sweden.se/society/sami-in-sweden/

Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change A more secure world: our shared responsibility, 28 March 2016, http://www.un.org/en/peacebuilding/pdf/historical/hlp_more_secure_world.pdf

Sustainable Development Goals (30 December 2015), 28 March 2016, http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

UN Resource Kit on Indigenous Peoples’ Issues, Department of Social and Economic Affairs, New York 2008, 28 March 2016 http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/resource_kit_indigenous_2008.pdf

Cobo, J.M., Study of the Problem of Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations. UN Doc E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7 (New York: UN, (1986/7).

ILO Convention 107 on the Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi-Tribal Populations in Independent Countries, 28 March http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312252

ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (1989), 28 March 2016 http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C169

Ilulissat Declaration of 28 May 2008, 28 March 2016, http://www.arcticgovernance.org/the-ilulissat-declaration.4872424.html

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007, (UN GA res. 61/295), 28 March 2015, http://research.un.org/en/docs/ga/quick/regular/61

UN GA res. 48/163 of 21 December 1993, 28 March 2016, http://research.un.org/en/docs/ga/quick/regular/48

UN GA res. 59/174 of 20 December 2004, 28 March 2016, http://research.un.org/en/docs/ga/quick/regular/59

2005 draft Nordic Sami Convention, 28 March 2016, https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/aid/temadokumenter/sami/sami_samekonv_engelsk.pdf

First Page


Last Page