International Studies: Interdisciplinary Cultural and Political Journal


The rising and acceleration of the Shia armed group in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and Lebanon require a deep understanding of the root of the multi-dimensional conflicts in the Middle East. An appropriate and sufficient approach to the research about these militias will be from an internal conflict rather than an external conflict. The legitimization for the existence of the majority of these militias if not all of them is to fight and struggle against an entity which is the Sunni sect, in this case, that will assimilate them not integrate them peacefully.


Iraq, Iran, Shia armed groups, Sectarian division, ISIS, New Middle East and Religious violence


Aziz, J. What are Iraq’s Popular Mobilization Units doing in Beirut? Lebanon pulse. “The Almonitor”, 2016. Web. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/08/lebanon-host-secret-meeting-iraq-pmus-western-diplomats.html

Balcells, L. Book review of proxy warriors: The Rise and Fall of State-Sponsored Militias – By Ariel Ahram. “Democracy and Security”, no. 8 (2012), pp. 406–414.

Brancati, D. Can Federalism Stabilize Iraq? “The Washington Quarterly”, no. 27 (2004), pp. 7–21.

Carey, S.C., Mitchell, N.J., & Lowe, W. States, the security sector, and the monopoly of violence. “Journal of Peace Research”, no, 50 (2013), pp. 249–258.

Cockburn, P. Cricket but no Chess in Sistani’s Vision for Democratic Iraq. “The Independent News of the World”, 2005. Web. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/cricket-but-no-chess-in-sistanis-vision-for-democratic-iraq-1529714.html

Cole, J. Top 10 Mistakes of Former Iraq PM Nouri al-Maliki (that ruined his country). “Juan Cole’s Blog”, 2014. Web. http://www.juancole.com/2014/08/mistakes-Maliki-country.html

Dahm, Jochen. Gombert, Tobias. Krell, Christian. Foundations of social democracy. “Akademie für Soziale Demokratie” (2017), pp. 79–85.

Ekman, J. Political participation and regime stability: A Framework for Analyzing Hybrid Regimes. “International Political Science Review”, no. 30 (2009), pp. 7–31.

Evans, G. Only self-rule will bring stability to Iraq. The Crisis Group. Op-ed, Middle East & North Africa, 2003. Web. https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/gulf-and-arabian-peninsula/iraq/only-self-rule-will-bring-stability-iraq

Golkar, S. Captive Society: The Basij Militia and Social Control in Iran. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2015.

Gordon, M., & Schmitt, E. Saudi Arabia will grant US request for anti-ISIS training program. “The New York Times”, 2014. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/world/middleeast/saudi-arabia-isis.html?_r=1

Hague, R., & Harrop, M. Comparative Government and Politics. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, pp. 83–99.

Hamilton, S. Outsourcing US defense: National security implications –UPDATED: Industry insights. “The National Defense”, 2011. Web. http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2011/January/Pages/OutsourcingUSDefenseNationalSecurityImplications.aspx

Hawn, J. Intro to global security: Defining mercenaries and militias, 2013. Web. http://introglobalsecurity.blogspot.com/2013/02/defining-mercenaries-and-militias.html

Khedery, A. Why we stuck with Maliki – and lost Iraq. “The Washington Post. Opinions”, 2014. Web. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/why-we-stuck-with-maliki--and-lost-iraq/2014/07/03/0dd6a8a4-f7ec-11e3-a606–946fd632f9f1_story.html?utm_term=.c59a1a63d94f

Lutterbeck, D. Between Police and Military: The New Security Agenda and the Rise of Gendarmeries. “Cooperation and Conflict”, no. 39 (2004), pp. 46–47.

Massoud, A. About hybrid countries in the Arab world. “The Arab Weekly Newspaper”, 2015. Web. http://www.alarab.co.uk/article/Opinion/53177/%D8%B9%D9%86

Tilly, Charles. Irregular Armed Forces and Their Role in Politics and State Formation. Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 37–80.

Tran, M., & Roberts, D. Obama to lay out plan to ‘destroy’ Isis threat as Kerry arrives in Baghdad. “The Guardian”, 2014. Web. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/10/john-kerry-baghdad-obama-isis-strategy

Tures, J. How we enabled ISIS by disarming Iraqi militias. Huffington Post. “The Blog”, 2014. Web. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-a-tures/how-we-enabled-isis-by-di_b_5947796.html

First Page


Last Page