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Acta Universitatis Lodziensis Folia Litteraria Polonica

Abstract

The article accounts for the gnostic individualism in Miłosz’s records. It shows that its essence is not freedom, but self-will. It argues that its premises are existential. Among them we can find the fundamental data of existence: the passage of time, death, growing old of the body, the decomposition of matter, experiencing biological drives as violence and the laws of nature and history as necessity. If existence is experienced that way it bears self-will. The author argues that Miłosz fell into a crisis of gnostic self-will as he realized it leads to the inner split between the evil world and the ideal super-world. He was also aware that this duality implies the aversion to the earthly life and nihilism. The author shows that the experience of self-will served as a tool in the Nobel laureate’s writings to study totalitarianisms. From this perspective Nazism seems to be the self-will inspired by Darwinism, while Communism – the quintessence of Enlightenment idealism. As a result of the deviation of freedom the Nazi Germany and the Bolshevik Russia became the mine of genocide.

Keywords

humanism, Darwinism, freedom and necessity, self-will, totalitarianism, genocide

References

Besançon Allain, Święta Ruś, trans. Łukasz Maślanka, Fundacja Świętego Mikołaja Redakcja „Teologii Politycznej”, Warsaw 2012.

Bierdiajew Mikołaj, Rosyjska idea, trans. J.C. – S.W., Stowarzyszenie Kulturalne Fronda, Warsaw 1999.

Bierdiajew Mikołaj, Światopogląd Dostojewskiego, trans. Henryk Paprocki, Wydawnictwo Antyk, Kęty 2004.

Camus Albert, Człowiek zbuntowany, in: idem, Eseje, selection and trans. Joanna Guze, Państwowy Instytut wydawniczy, Warsaw 1971.

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Jasinowski Bogumił, Wschodnie chrześcijaństwo a Rosja. Na tle rozbioru pierwiastków cywilizacyjnych Wschodu i Zachodu, Instytut Naukowo-Badawczy Europy Wschodniej, Wilno 1933.

Marcin Broda, Justyna Kurczak, Przemysław Waingertner, Komunizm w Rosji i jego polskie interpretacje, Wydawnictwo Ibidem, Lodz 2006.

Miłosz Czesław, Legendy nowoczesności, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Krakow 1996.

Miłosz Czesław, Przygody młodego umysłu. Publicystyka i proza 1931–1939, Agnieszka Stawiarska (ed.), Znak, Krakow 2003.

Miłosz Czesław, Rodzinna Europa, Czytelnik, Warsaw 1990.

Miłosz Czesław, Rosja. Widzenia transoceaniczne, t. I: Dostojewski – nasz współczesny, Barbara Toruńczyk (ed.), Fundacja „Zeszytów Literackich”, Warsaw 2010.

First Page

113

Last Page

138

Language

eng

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