The English language has featured markedly as a popular language of computer-mediated communication, and notably of Facebook posts, written not only by native or second language speakers, but also users of English as a foreign language. The aim of this paper is to investigate the frequency, form and function of English language Facebook profile updates of 110 (55 women and 55 men) users of English representing 41 European, Asian, African and Latin American countries belonging to the Expanding Circle. Approached from the point of view of the code choice as well as the users’ gender, and supported by an online survey data, the study analyses in detail the form of the updates in connection with gender preferences and identifies language contexts and functions users choose to express themselves in English as opposed to their native tongue, thereby demonstrating the role of English as a we-code in a social networking service.
English in the Expanding Circle, code choice, genderlect, computer-mediated communication
Al Kaddour, Noor and Rana Kaddoura. 2019. The use of code-switching and code-mixing by speakers of Emirati Arabic (EA). Journal of Literatures, Language and Linguistics 52, 59-63. https://doi.org/10.7176/JLLL/52-08
Bassam, Loubna. 2017. Gender Differences in SMS Code-Switching by Lebanese Undergraduates. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Tarragona
Bell, Allan. 1984. Language style as audience design. Language in Society 13(2), 145-204. https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001037X
Blom, Jan-Petter and John J. Gumperz. 1972. Social meaning in linguistic structures: code-switching in Norway. In: Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication,ed. by J. J. Gumperz and D. Hymes. New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 407-434.
Blommaert, Jan. 2010. The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845307
Cheshire, Jenny and Penelope Gardner-Chloros. 1997. Communicating gender in two languages. In: Communicating Gender in Context, ed. by H. Kothoff and R. Wodak. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 249-283. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.42.12che
Cheshire, Jenny and Penelope Gardner-Chloros. 1998. Code-switching and sociolinguistic gender pattern. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 129, 5-34. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1998.129.5
Clyne, Michael. 2003. Dynamics of Language Contact: English and Immigrant Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511606526
Dąbrowska, Marta. 2013. Variation in Language: Faces of Facebook English. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Deumert, Ana. 2014. Sociolinguistics and Mobile Communication. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Dorleijn, Margreet and Jacomine Nortier. 2009. Code-switching and the Internet. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-switching, ed. by B. E. Bullock and A. J. Toribio . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 127-141. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576331.009
Eckert, Penelope and Sally McConnell-Ginet. 1992. Think practically and look logically: Language and gender as community-based practice. Annual Review of Anthropology 21/4, 21-6. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.21.100192.002333
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 1991. Language Selection and Switching in Strasbourg. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 2009. Code-Switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609787
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope and Katerina Finnis. 2004. How code-switching mediates politeness: gender-related speech among London Greek-Cypriots. Estudios de Sociolinguistica. Special Issue: Language and Gender: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, 4(2), 505-533. https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.v4i2.505
Graddol, David. 2006. English Next. Why Global English May Mean the End of “English as a Foreign Language”. London: British Council.
Gumperz, John J. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611834
Hinrichs, Lars. 2006. Codeswitching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in E-mail Communication. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.147
Holmes, Janet. 1995. Women, Men and Politeness. London and New York: Longman.
Ismail, Manal A. 2015. The Sociolinguistic Dimensions of code-switching between Arabic and English by Saudis. International Journal of English Linguistics 5 (5), 99-109. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v5n5p99
Kachru, Braj Bihari. 1992. The second diaspora of English. In: English in its Social Contexts: Essays in Historical Linguistics, ed. by T.W. Machan, and C.T. Scott. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 230-252.
Mills, Sara and Louise Mullany. 2011. Language, Gender and Feminism. Theory, Methodology and Practice. Oxford: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203814666
Mushtaq, Hammad. 2012. Gender difference in code-switching and code-mixing in text messages of undergraduate students. Language in India 12, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2196930
Muysken, Pieter. 2000. Bilingual Speech: A Typology of Code-mixing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Social Motivation for Codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Nortier, Jacomine. 1990. Dutch-Moroccan Arabic Code Switching. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Panhwar, Farida, Saima Murtaza Pandihiani and Ameer Ali Buriro. 2018. Code-switching and gender identity. The Women 10, 42-59.
Pennycook, Alastair. 2007. Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203088807
Poplack, Shana. 1980. Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish Y TERMINO EN ESPANOL: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18. 581-618. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581
Sebba, Mark and Tony Wootton. 1998. We, they and identity: sequential vs. identity-related explanation in code-switching. In: Code-Switching in Conversation, ed. by P. Auer. London: Routledge, 262-290.
Seidlhofer, Barbara. 2007. English as a lingua franca and communities of practice. In: Anglistentag 2006 Halle Proceedings, ed. by S. Volk-Birke and J. Lippert. Trier: Wissenschaflicher Verlag, 307-318.
Tagg, Caroline and Philip Seargeant. 2014. Audience design and language choice in the construction and maintenance of translocal communities on social network sites. In: The Language of Social Media: Identity and Community on the Internet, ed. by P. Seargeant and C. Tagg. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 161-185. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137029317_8
Tannen, Deborah. 1991. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Ballantine Books.
Tannen, Deborah. 1994. Gender and Discourse. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Treffers-Daller, Jeanine.1994. Mixing Two Languages. French-Dutch Contact in a Comparative Perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110882230
Trousdale, Graeme. 2010. An Introduction to English Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1992 (2nd ed.). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wenger, Étienne. 1998. Communities of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.