The studies devoted to the so-called good language learners that emerged in the 1970s (Rubin 1975) reveal that efficient learners fall back on an abundant and highly individualised array of techniques and strategic behaviours related to and employed while learning. The well-known taxonomies by Oxford (1990) and O’Malley and Chamot (1990) gave rise to analyses and investigations in the field of learner autonomy and self-development, also in pronunciation learning/teaching. As has been corroborated by empirical studies (Oxford 2001a; Oxford 2001b; Chamot, 2004) strategy training contributes to the increase in overall proficiency as well as to a number of invaluable benefits such as enhanced motivation, greater self-efficacy, anxiety reduction and more positive attitudes. Although studies dedicated to the relationship between learning strategies and pronunciation are still in their infancy, there are a number of investigations that set the directions for further research and development (Peterson 2000; Pawlak 2008; Pawlak and Oxford 2018).
The paper presents results of a pilot study conducted in a secondary school that aimed at observing how learners develop pronunciation strategies as a result of regular pronunciation input and feedback from the teacher. It addresses a tentative assumption that explicit pronunciation training may contribute to the enhanced strategy use and consequently to better oral performance. Detecting and naming the strategies employed by the learners as well as selecting the most effective ones for more explicit application aided and boosted the learners’ awareness and confidence, which was confirmed by data obtained from questionnaires and from participant observation.
learner autonomy, pronunciation learning strategies, explicit pronunciation instruction, learner awareness, teaching intervention
Baran-Łucarz, M. 2017. Immediate and delayed effects of pronunciation FFI on L2 self-confidence. A mixed-method study in the Polish EFL context. Paper presented at the International Conference ACCENTS 2017
Catford, J. C. 1987. Phonetics and the teaching of pronunciation. In J. Morley (Ed.), Current perspectives on pronunciation: Practices anchored in theory. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., Goodwin, J. M., & Griner, B. 2010. Teaching pronunciation. A course book and reference guide. Hong Kong, China: Cambridge University Press.
Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and training. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1, 14–26.
Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. 2005. Second language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 379–397. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588486
Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Thomson, R. I. 2007. A longitudinal study of ESL learners’ fluency and comprehensibility development. Applied Linguistics, 29, 359–380.
Derwing, T. M., &Rossiter, M. J. 2002. ESL learners’ perceptions of their pronunciation needs and strategies. System, 30, 155-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00012-X
Dörnyei, Z., & Skehan, P. 2003. Individual differences in second language learning. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 589–630). Oxford: Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1111/b.9781405132817.2005.00019.x
Eckstein, G. T. 2007. A correlation of pronunciation learning strategies with spontaneous English Pronunciation of adult ESL learners. Provo: Brigham Young University.
Harmer, J. 2001. The practice of English language teaching. London: Longman. https://doi.org/10.1177/003368820103200109
Henderson, A. & Jarosz, A. 2014. Desperately Seeking a Communicative Approach: English Pronunciation in a Sample of French and Polish Secondary School Textbooks. Research in Language, 12(3), 261-278. https://doi.org/10.2478/rela-2014-0015
Huensch, A. & Thompson, A. S. 2017. Contextualizing Attitudes Toward Pronunciation: Foreign Language Learners in the United States. Foreign Language Annals, 50(2), 410-432.
Jarosz, A. 2019. English Pronunciation in L2 Instruction. The Case of Secondary School Learners. Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13892-9
Kelly, G. 2000. How to teach pronunciation. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Pearson Longman.
Levis, J. 2019. Connecting the dots between pronunciation research and practice. Plenary talk at EPIP 6 Conference, Skopje, Macedonia, 2019.
Manchón, R. M. 2018. Past and future agendas on writing strategies: Conceptualizations, inquiry methods, and research findings. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8 (2), 247-268. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.2.4
Morley, J. 1994. Pronunciation pedagogy and theory, new views, new directions. Alexandria: TESOL.
Munro, M. J. & Derwing, T. M. 2006. The functional load principle in ESL pronunciation instruction: An exploratory study. System, 34, 520-531.
O’Malley, M. &Chamot, A. 1990. Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524490
Oxford, R. 1990. Language learning strategies. New York: Newbury House Publishers
Oxford, R. 2001. Language learning styles and strategies. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 359–366). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Oxford, R. 2001a. Language learning strategies. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages (pp. 166–172). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pawlak, M. 2006. On the use of pronunciation learning strategies by Polish foreign language learners. In W. Sobkowiak & E. Waniek-Klimczak (Eds.), Dydaktyka fonetyki języka obcego w Polsce. Referaty z szóstej konferencji naukowej (pp. 121–135). Mikorzyn, 8–10 maja 2006. Konin: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Koninie. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10015-010-0005-6
Pawlak, M. 2008. Another look at the use of pronunciation learning strategies. An advanced learner’s perspective. In E. Waniek-Klimczak (Ed.), Issues in accents of English (pp. 304– 322). Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Pawlak, M. 2010. Teaching foreign language pronunciation: Issues in research focus and methodology. In Waniek-Klimczak (Ed.), Issues in accents of English 2: Variability and norm (pp. 169–184). Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Pawlak, M. 2010a. Designing and piloting a tool for the measurement of the use of pronunciation learning strategies. Research in Language, 8, 189-202.
Pawlak, M. 2011. Students’ successes and failures in learning foreign language pronunciation: Insights from diary data. In J. Arabski & A. Wojtaszek (Eds.), The acquisition of L2 phonology (pp. 165–182). Bristol, Buffalo, Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Pawlak, M., Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A. & Bielak, J. 2015. Exploring Advanced Learners’ Beliefs About Pronunciation Instruction and Their Relationship with Attainment. In: Waniek-Klimczak, E. & Pawlak, M. (Eds), Teaching and Researching the Pronunciation of English. Studies in Honour of Włodzimierz Sobkowiak (pp. 3-22). Switzerland: Springer.
Pawlak, M. 2018. Investigating the use of speaking strategies in the performance of two communicative tasks: The importance of communicative goal. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 269-292. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.2.5
Pawlak, M. 2018a. The use of pronunciation learning strategies in form-focused and meaning-focused activities: The impact of contextual and individual difference variables. In R. L. Oxford & C. M. Amerstorfer (Eds.), Language learning strategies and individual learner characteristics situating strategy use in diverse contexts (pp. 187-206). London: Bloomsbury.
Pawlak, M., & Szyszka, M. 2018. Researching pronunciation learning strategies: An overview and a critical look. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 293–323.
Peterson, S. 2000. Pronunciation learning strategies: A first look. Unpublished research report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 450 599; FL 026 618).
Porzuczek, A., Rojczyk, A., Arabski, J. 2013. Praktyczny kurs wymowy angielskiej dla Polaków. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
Rojczyk, A., & Porzuczek, A. 2012. Selected aspects in the acquisition of English phonology by polish learners—Segments and prosody. In D. Gabryś-Barker (Ed.), Readings in second language acquisition (pp. 93–120). Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
Rubin, J. 1975. What the “good language learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9(1), 41–51. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586011
Sardegna, V. G. 2011. Pronunciation learning strategies that improve ESL learners’ linking. In J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp. 105-121), Ames: Iowa State University.
Sardegna, V. G. 2012. Learner differences in strategy use, self-efficacy beliefs, and pronunciation improvement. In J. Levis &K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp. 39-53), Ames: Iowa State University.
Sardegna, V. G. & McGregor, A. 2013. Scaffolding students’ self-regulated efforts for effective pronunciation practice. In J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference 2012 (pp. 182-193), Ames: Iowa State University.
Sardegna, V. G., Lee, J., & Kusey, C. 2014. Development and validation of the learner attitudes and motivations for pronunciation (LAMP) inventory. System, 47, 162-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.10.009
Sardegna, V. G., Lee, J., & Kusey, C. 2018. Self-efficacy, attitudes, and choice of strategies for English pronunciation learning. Language Learning, 68(1), 83-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12263
Scheuer, S. 2003. What to teach and what not to teach? Some reflections on the relative salience of interlanguage errors. In W. Sobkowiak & E. Waniek-Klimczak (Eds.), Dydaktyka fonetyki języka obcego. Zeszyty Naukowe Państwowej Wyższej Szkoły Zawodowej w Koninie 2 (pp. 93–99). Konin: Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Koninie.
Scheuer, S. 2015. What to teach and what not to teach, yet again: On the elusive priorities for L2 English phonetics. In E. Waniek-Klimczak & M. Pawlak (Eds.), Teaching and researching the pronunciation of English. Studies in honour of Włodzimierz Sobkowiak (pp. 139–152). Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11092-9_8
Singleton, D. M., & Ryan, L. 2004. Language acquisition: The age factor. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853597596
Szpyra-Kozłowska, J., Frankiewicz, J., & Gonet, W. 2002. Aspekty fonetyki angielskiej nauczane w polskich szkołach średnich. In W. Sobkowiak & E. Waniek-Klimczak (Eds.), Dydaktyka fonetyki języka obcego. Neofilologia (pp. 9–27). Tom II. Płock: Zeszyty Naukowe PWSZ w Płocku.
Szpyra-Kozłowska, J. 2005. Lingua Franca Core, phonetic universals and the Polish context. In K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk & J. Przedlacka (Eds.), English pronunciation models: A changing scene (pp. 151–176). Bern: Peter Lang. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783092628
Szpyra-Kozłowska, J. 2015. Pronunciation in EFL instruction. A research-based approach. Bristol, Buffalo, Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Szyszka, M. 2015. Good English pronunciation uses and their pronunciation learning strategies. Research in Language, 13(1), 93–106. https://doi.org/10.1515/rela-2015-0017
Waniek-Klimczak, E. 1997. Context for teaching English phonetics and phonology at Polish universities and colleges: A survey. In E. Waniek-Klimczak & J. P. Melia (Eds.), Accents and speech in teaching English phonetics and phonology: EFL perspective (pp. 5–17). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Waniek-Klimczak, E. 2013. Teaching English pronunciation to English majors in Poland: Selected observations. In E. Mańczak-Wohlfeld & M. Jodłowiec (Eds.), Exploring the microcosm and macrocosm of language teaching and learning. A Festschrift on the occasion of 70th birthday of professor Anna Niżegorodcew (pp. 229–242). Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
Waniek-Klimczak, E. & Klimczak, K. 2005. Target in Speech Development: Learners’ Views. In: Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. & Przedlacka, J. (Eds.), English Pronunciation Models: A Changing Scene (pp. 229-249). Bern: Peter Lang.
Waniek-Klimczak, E., Rojczyk, A., Porzuczek, A. 2015. ‘Polglish’ in Polish eyes: What English studies majors think about their pronunciation in English. In E. Waniek-Klimczak & M. Pawlak (Eds.), Teaching and researching the pronunciation of English. Studies in honour of Włodzimierz Sobkowiak (pp. 23–34). Switzerland: Springer.
Wells, J. C. 2005. Goals in teaching English pronunciation. In K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk & J. Przedlacka (Eds.), English pronunciation models: A changing scene (pp. 101–110). Bern: Peter Lang.
Zeng, Y. & Goh, C. 2018. A self-regulated learning approach to extensive listening and its impact on listening achievement and metacognitive awareness. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(2), 193-218. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.2.2