•  
  •  
 

Title

The Exiled Bishops of Constantinople from the Fourth to the Late Sixth Century

Abstract

A number of cases of the bishops of Constantinople exiled over a period until as late as the close of the 6th century prove the fact that the rulers would always make an effort to remove the deposed bishops from the City, even though relocating the latter to specific destinations did not always have to be the case. In the 4th century, the bishops could withdraw to suburban districts or settle at their own estates, and it was not until the 5th century that depositions of the metropolitan bishops would involve, in principle, being deported to a specific place of exile. The purpose behind banishing a bishop from the City and putting him under supervision at a certain location was to prevent him from exerting any influence on the faithful in Constantinople. It should be also noted that sending a person into exile was a form of punishment, especially when the destination was a remote location exposed to harsh weather conditions or the threat of sudden incursions by bands of nomads or brigands. Results of an analysis of the accessibility of exile destinations provide substantial evidence for an overwhelming proportion of inland urban localities. Although many of such places would be located along or near various roads, they were generally situated far from the coast or the main routes to Constantinople.

Keywords

Byzantium, Byzantine Church, bishops of Constantinople (4–6 c.)

References

Athanasius, Werke, vol. II, 1, Die Apologien, ed. H. G. Opitz, Berlin–Leipzig 1935–1941.

Callinicos, Vie d`Hypatios, ed. et trans. G. J.M. Bartelink, Paris 1971.

The Chronicle of Marcellinus, trans. B. Croke, Sydney 1995.

The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius with the scholia, ed. J. Bidez, L. Parmentier, London 1898.

Georgii Monachi Chronicon, ed. C. de Boor, vol. II, Textum genuinum inde a Vespasiani imperio continens, Lipsiae 1904.

Historia Ecclesiastica Zachariae Rhetori vulgo adscripta, ed. E. W. Brooks, vol. II, Lovanii 1924.

John Chrysostom’s Letters, [in:] PG, vol. LII, col. 549–748.

John of Ephesus, Lives of the Eastern Saints, Introduction, trans., ed. E. W. Brooks, PO XVIII, Paris 1924.

La lettre de Nestorius aux habitants de Constantinople, ed. E. W. Brooks, ROC 15, 1910, p. 275–281.

Liberatus, [in:] ACO, vol. II, Concilium Universale Chalcedonense, vol. V, Collectio sangermanensis, ed. E. Schwartz, Berolini et Lipsiae 1936, p. 98–141.

Nestoriana. Die Fragmente des Nestorius, ed. F. Loofs, Halle 1905.

Nestorius, Le livre d’Heraclide de Damas, ed. P. Bedjan, Paris 1910.

Palladios, Dialogue sur la vie de Jean Chrysostome, ed., trans. A.-M. Malingrey, Ph. Leclercq, vol. I, Paris 1988.

Philostorgius, Kirchengeschichte. Mit dem Leben des Lucian von Antiochien und den Fragmenten des arianischen Historiographen, ed. J. Bidez, F. Winkelmann, Berlin 1981.

Photius, Bibliotheque, ed., trans. R. Henry, vol. I, Paris 1959.

La seconde partie de l’histoire de Barhadbešabba ‘Arbaia et controverse de Theodore de Mopsueste avec les macedoniens, ed., trans. F. Nau, PO 9, Paris 1913, p. 493–677.

Socrates, Kirchengeschichte, ed. G.Ch. Hansen, coll. M. Širinjan, Berlin 1995.

Sozomenus, Kirchengeschichte, ed. J. Bidez, G.Ch. Hansen, Berlin 1960.

The Synodicon Vetus, ed., trans. J. Duffy, J. Parker, Washington 1979.

Theodoret, Kirchengeschichte, ed. L. Parmentier, F. Scheidweiler, Berlin 1954.

Theodoros Anagnostes, Kirchengeschichte, ed. G. Ch. Hansen, Berlin 1971.

Theophanis Chronographia, rec. C. de Boor, vol. I, Lipsiae 1883.

Vie de Severe par Jean, superieur de monastere de Beith-Aphthonia, ed. M.-A. Kugener, PO 2, Paris 1907, p. 203–400.

Vittore da Tunnuna, Chronica. Chiesa e impero nell’eta di Giustiniano, ed. A. Placanica, Firenze 1997.

Ball J., Khargah Oasis. Its Topography and Geology, Cairo 1900.

Barnes T. D., Athanasius and Constantius. Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire, Cambridge 1993.

Baur Chr., Der heilige Johannes Chrysostomus und seine Zeit, vol. I–II, München 1929–1930.

Benzinger I., Emesa, [in:] RE, vol. V, Stuttgart 1905, col. 2496–2497.

van Berchem D., Recherches sur la chronologie de Syrie et de Mesopotamie, Sy 31, 1954, p. 265–267.

Bevan G. A., The Case of Nestorius: Ecclesiastical Politics in the East, 428–451 CE. A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Classics, in the University of Toronto, Toronto 2005.

Bevan G. A., The Last Days of Nestorius in the Syriac Sources, JCSSS 7, 2007, p. 39–54.

Blaudeau Ph., Alexandrie et Constantinople (451–491). De l’histoire a la geo-ecclesiologie, Roma 2006.

Bürchner, Hypaipa, [in:] RE, vol. VIII, Stuttgart 1914, col. 195–196.

Chadwick H., The Exile and Death of Flavian of Constantinople. A Prologue to the Council of Chalcedon, JTS 6, 1955, p. 17–34.

Dagron G., Naissance d`une capitale, Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 a 451, Paris 1974.

Delmaire R., Exil, relegation, deportation dans la legislation du bas-empire, [in:] Exil et relegation. Les tribulations du sage et du saint durant l’Antiquite romaine et chretienne (Ier–IVe s. ap. J.-C.), ed. Ph. Blaudeau, Paris 2008, p. 115–132.

Diehl E., Pityus, [in:] RE, vol. XX, Stuttgart 1950, col. 1883–1884.

Drinkwater J. F., The revolt and ethnic origin of the usurper Magnentius (350–53) and the rebellion of Vetranio (350), Chi 30, 2000, p. 131–159.

Filipczak P., Bunty i niepokoje w miastach wczesnego Bizancjum (IV wiek n.e.), Łódź 2009.

Foss C., Amaseia, [in:] ODB, p. 74.

Foss C., Ankyra, [in:] ODB, p. 102.

Foss C., Euchaita, [in:] ODB, p. 737.

Foss C., Gangra, [in:] ODB, p. 821.

Fournier E., Exiled Bishops in the Christian Empire: Victims of Imperial Violence?, [in:] Violence in Late Antiquity: Perception and Practices, ed. H. Drake, Aldershot 2006, p. 157–166.

Frend W. H.C., The Fall of Macedonius in 511 – a Suggestion, [in:] Kerygma und Logos. Beitrage zu den geistesgeschichtlichen Bezeihungen zwischen Antike und Christentum. Festschrift fur Carl Andresen zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. A. M. Ritter, Göttingen 1979, p. 183–195.

Grégoire H., Geographie byzantine, BZ 19, 1913, p. 59–61.

Grillmeier A. in collaboration with Hainthaler Th., Christ in Christian Tradition, vol. II, From the Council of Chalcedon (451) to Gregory the Great (590–604), pars II, The Church of Constantinople in the sixth century, transl. J. Cawte, P. Allen, London 1995.

Haarer F. K., Anastasius I. Politics and Empire in the Late Roman World, Cambridge 2006.

de Halleux A., La premiere session du concile d’Ephese (22 juin 431), ETL 69, 1993, p. 48–87.

Hillner J., Confined Exiles: An Aspect of the Late Antique Prison System, Mil 10, 2013, p. 385–434.

Hillner J., Prison, Punishment and Penance in Late Antiquity, Cambridge 2015.

Honigmann E., Anthimus of Trebizond, Patriarch of Constantinople (June 535–March 536), [in:] Patristic Studies, Citta del Vaticano 1953, p. 185–193.

Ilski K., Sobory w polityce religijnej Teodozjusza II, Poznań 1992.

Janin R., Eutichio, [in:] Bibliotheca Sanctorum, vol. V, Roma 1964, col. 323–324 Kaegi W. E., Kazhdan A., Petra, [in:] ODB, p. 1642–1643.

Kazhdan A., Eutychios, [in:] ODB, p. 759

Kelly J. N.D., Golden Mouth. The Story of John Chrysostom. Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop, New York 1995.

Kosiński R., Dzieje Akacjusza, patriarchy Konstantynopola w latach 471–489, USS 9, 2010, p. 63–97.

Kosiński R., Dzieje Nestoriusza, biskupa Konstantynopola w latach 428–431, [in:] U schyłku starożytności.

Studia źrodłoznawcze, vol. VII, ed. P. Janiszewski, R. Wiśniewski, Warszawa 2008, p. 30–63.

Kosiński R., Euphemios, Patriarch of Constantinople in the Years 490–496, JÖB 62, 2012, p. 57–79.

Leszka M. B., Kościoł i jego wpływ na życie mieszkańcow Konstantynopola, [in:] Konstantynopol – Nowy Rzym. Miasto i ludzie w okresie wczesnobizantyńskim, ed. M. J. Leszka, T. Wolińska, Warszawa 2011, p. 350–400.

Luibheid C., The Arianism of Eusebius of Nikomedia, ITQ 43, 1976, p. 3–23.

Mango M. M., Emesa, [in:] ODB, p. 690.

McGuckin J., Saint Cyril of Alexandria and the Christological Controversy. Its History, Theology, and Texts, New York 2004.

Milewski I., Depozycje i zsyłki biskupow w Cesarstwie Wschodniorzymskim (lata 325–451), Gdańsk 2008.

Oates D., Studies in the Ancient History of Northern Iraq, Oxford 1968.

Oberhummer E., Beroia, [in:] RE, Bd. III, Stuttgart 1897, col. 304–306.

Ruge, Kokusos, [in:] RE, vol. VI, Stuttgart 1921, col. 1065.

Schwartz E., Publizistische Sammlungen zum acacianischen Schisma, München 1934.

Simonetti M., La crisi ariana nel IV secolo, Roma 1975.

Spychała D., Cesarze rzymscy a arianizm od Konstantyna Wielkiego do Teodozjusza Wielkiego (312–395), Poznań 2007.

Spychała D., Saint Paul et Macedonius ou la lutte pour le throne de l’eveque de Constantinople sous le regne de Constance II, [in:] Studia Lesco Mrozewicz ab amicis et discipulis dedicata, ed. S. Ruciński, C. Balbuza, Ch. Królczyk, Poznań 2011, p. 377–390.

Tafler W., Paul of Constantinople, HTR 43, 1950, p. 30–92.

Tiersch C., Johannes Chrysostomus in Konstantinopel (398–404). Weltsicht und Wirken eines Bischofs in der Hauptstadt des Ostromischen Reiches, Tübingen 2002.

Weissbach F. H., Singara, [in:] RE, s. II, Bd. III, Stuttgart 1927, col. 232–233.

Whitby M., Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople. An Epic Holy Man, [in:] Homo Viator: Classical Essays for John Bramble, ed. M. Whitby, Ph. Hardie and M. Whitby, Bristol 1987, p. 297–308.

ΧΑΤΖΗΑΝΤΩΝΊΟΥ Ε., Η θρησκευτική πολιτική του Αναστασίου Α΄ (491–518). Η στάση του αυτοκράτορα απέναντι στο ακακιανό σχίσμα και τη μονοφυσιτική έριδα, Θεσσαλονίκη 2009.

First Page

231

Last Page

247

Language

eng

Share

COinS