•  
  •  
 

Title

Verses of Faith and Devotion. Seeing, Reading, and Touching Monumental Crucifixes with Inscriptions (12th–13th century)

Abstract

The paper discusses a group of monumental crucifixes from the 13th-century East Adriatic and Italy, pained or executed in low relief, that display a verse inscriptions on the transverse limb of the cross. The main scope of the paper is to examine the provenance of the text inscribed in order to yield clearer insight into their function, use and original location in the church interiors. The paper specifically aims at analyzing three monumental crucifixes from the East-Adriatic city of Zadar which, although have already been the subject of a respectable number of studies, have not attracted attention as objects of devotion. My interest, therefore, is turned towards verse inscription as their distinctive feature and, as I shall argue, a key aspect in understanding their function. Examining the nature of the text displayed, iconography and materiality of these crucifixes, my main argument is to demonstrate how these objects provoked a multi-faced response from their audience, since were experienced by seeing, hearing and touching respectively.

Keywords

monumental crucifixes, pained crosses, verse inscriptions, medieval devotional poetry, medieval devotional practices, Zadar

References

Ambrose K., Visual poetics of the Cluny hemicycle capital inscriptions, W&I 20/2, 2004, p. 155–164.

Ambrose K., Attunement to the Damned of the Conques Tympanum, Ges 50/1, 2011, p. 1–17.

Augusti A., Un crocifisso duecentesco ai Frari, VenA 7, 1993, p. 153–156.

Augusti A., Basilica dei Frari: arte e devozione, Venezia 1994.

Bacci M., Shaping the Sacred: Painted Crosses and Shrines in Thirteenth-Century Pisa, RJBH 38, 2007–2008, p. 113–129.

Bacci M., ‘Pro remedio animae’. Immagini sacre e pratiche devozionali in Italia centrale (secoli XIII e XIV), Pisa 2000.

Babić I., Unutarnja strana lunete glavnog portala trogirske katedrale – djelo majstora Radovana, ShP III/21, 1991, p. 205–244.

Boskovits M. (ass. by A. Labriola, A. Tartuffi), The origins of Florentine painting, 1100–1270: A critical and historical corpus of Florentine Painting, vol. I, Florence 1993.

Boskovits M., Immagine e preghiera nel tardo Medioevo: osservazioni preliminari, ArtC 76, 1988, p. 93–104.

Brajović S. – J. Erdeljan, Praying with senses. Examples of icon devotion and the sensory experience in medieval and early modern Balkans, Зог 39, 2015, p. 57–63.

Bratulić J., Hrvatska srednjovjekovna poezija latinskog jezičnog izraza, [in:] Idem, Sjaj baštine. Rasprave i članci o hrvatskoj dopreporodnoj književnosti, Split 1990, p. 35–51.

Brenk B., Il ciborio esagonale di San Marco a Venezia, [in:] L’arte di Bisanzio e l’Italia al tempo dei Paleologi 1261–1453, ed. A. Iacobini, M. Della Valle, Roma 1999, p. 143–157.

Burresi M. – A. Caleca, Le croci dipinte, Pisa 1993.

Cannon J., Kissing the Virgin’s Foot: Adoratio before the Madonna and Child enacted, depicted, imagined, SI 31, 2010, p. 1–50.

Cannon J., Beyond the Limitations of Visual Typology: Reconsidering the Function and Audience of Three Vita Panels of Women Saints c. 1300, [in:] Italian Panel Painting of the Duecento and Trecento, ed. V.M. Schmidt, Washington 2001, p. 291–314.

Carletti L., Croce dipinta (no. 41), [in:] Cimabue a Pisa. La pittura pisana del Duecento da Giunta a Giotto, ed. M. Burresi, A. Caleca, Ospedaletto 2005, p. 178–179.

Caseau B., The Senses in Religion: Liturgy, Devotion, and Deprivation, [in:] A Cultural History of the Senses in the Middle Ages, ed. R.G. Newhauser, London 2014, p. 89–110.

Cecchelli C. (ed.), Catalogo delle cose d’arte e di antichita d’Italia: Zara, Roma 1932.

Corsato C., Public Piety and Private Devotion: The Altar of the Cross, Titian and the Scuola della Passione at the Frari, [in:] Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari: Immagini di Devozione, Spazi della Fede / Devotional Spaces, Images of Piety, ed. C. Corsato, D. Howard, Padova 2015, p. 101–116.

Favreau R., Sources des inscriptions médiévales, CRAIBL 153/4, 2009, p. 1277–1330.

Favreau R., Fonctions des inscriptions au moyen âge, CCM 32, 1989, p. 203–232.

Fisković I., Crucifixion with the Living Christ, 12th/13th c., [in:] The Croats: Christianity, Culture, Art: Exhibition Catalogue, Musei Vaticani 1990–2000, Zagreb 1999, p. 264–265.

Fisković I., Romaničko slikarstvo u Hrvatskoj, Zagreb 1987.

Fisher A.E., Cross Altar and Crucifix in Ottonian Cologne. Past Narrative, Present Ritual, Future Resurrection, [in:] Decorating the Lord’s Table. On the Dynamics between Image and Altar in the Middle Ages, ed. S. Kaspersen, E. Thuno, Copenhagen 2006, p. 43–62.

Freedberg D., The Power of Images: Studies in the History and Theory of Response, Chicago–London 1991.

Frosinini C., La riforma gregoriana e la nascita della croce dipinta, [in:] Pinxit Guillielmus. Il restauro della croce di Sarzana, ed. M. Ciatti, C. Frosinini, R. Bellucci, Firenze 2001, p. 27–30.

Gamulin G., The Painted Crucifixes in Croatia, trans. E. Elias Bursać, Zagreb 1983.

Gamulin G., Raspelo iz 12. stoljeća u Zadru, ZR 16/2–3, 1967, p. 167–176.

Garrison E.B., Italian Romanesque Panel Painting. An Illustrated Index, Florence 1949.

Gramigni T., Le iscrizioni della croce di Sarzana e le scritture d’apparato toscane del XII secolo, [in:] Scrittura epigrafica e scrittura libraria: fra Occidente e Oriente, ed. M. Maniaci, P. Orsini, Cassino 2015, p. 133–174.

Hilje E. – R. Tomić, Slikarstvo: umjetnička baština Zadarske nadbiskupije, Zadar 2006.

Hilje E., Slikarstvo zadarske nadbiskupije od IV. do kraja XV. stoljeća, [in:] E. Hilje, R. Tomić, Slikarstvo: umjetnička baština Zadarske nadbiskupije, Zadar 2006, p. 5–36.

Holmes M., The Miraculous Image in Renaissance Florence, New Haven 2013.

Holmes M., Ex-votos: Materiality, Memory, and Cult, [in:] The Idol in the Age of Art. Objects, Devotions and the Early Modern World, ed. M.W. Cole, R. Zorach, Farnhout 2009, p. 159–181.

Imesch K., The Altar of the Holy Cross and the ideal of Adam’s progeny: ‘Ut paradysiace loca possideat regionis’, [in:] Death and Dying in the Middle Ages, ed. E.E. DuBruck, B.I. Gusick, New York 1999, p. 73–106.

Jung J.E., The Tactile and the Visionary: Notes on the Place of Sculpture in the Medieval Religious Imagination, [in:] Looking Beyond: Visions, Dreams, and Insights in Medieval Art and History, ed. C. Hourihane, Princeton 2010, p. 203–240.

Kendall C.B., The Allegory of the Church: Romanesque Portals and Their Verse Inscriptions, Toronto 1998.

Kendall C.B., The Gate of Heaven and the Fountain of Life: Speech-Act Theory and Portal Inscriptions, EMS 10, 1993, p. 111–125.

Kessler H.L., The French connection: word and image on the Rosano cross, [in:] La pittura su tavola del secolo XII. Riconsiderazioni e nuove acquisizioni a seguito del restauro della Croce di Rossano, ed. C. Frosinini, G. Wolf, A. Monciatti, Firenze 2012, p. 133–140.

Kessler H.L., Inscriptions on Painted Crosses and the Spaces of Personal and Communal Meditation, [in:] Inscriptions in Liturgical Spaces [= AAAHP 24], ed. K.B. Aavitsland, T. Karlsen Seim, Rome 2011, p. 161–184.

Klaić N., Petricioli I., Zadar u srednjem vijeku do 1409. godine, Zadar 1976.

Kolumbić N., Hrvatska književnost na prijelazu iz romanike u gotiku, [in:] Majstor Radovan i njegovo doba, ed. I. Babić, Trogir 1994, p. 241–246.

Kopania K., Animated Sculptures of the Crucified Christ in the Religious Culture of the Latin Middle Ages, Warsaw 2010.

Kroesen J.E.A., The Altar and its Decorations in Medieval Churches. A Functionalist Approach, Med. 17, 2014, p. 153–183.

Lawless C., Sensing the image: gender, piety and images in late medieval Tuscany, OAJ 4, 2014–2015, p. 61–74.

Lentes T., ‘As Far as the Eye Can See…’: Rituals of Gazing in the Late Middle Ages, [in:] The Mind’s Eye: Art and Theological Argument in the Middle Ages, ed. J.F. Hamburger, A. Bouche, Princeton 2005, p. 360–373.

Lipton S., “The Sweet Lean of His Head”: Writing about Looking at the Crucifix in the High Middle Ages, S 80/4, 2005, p. 1172–1208.

Lutz G., The Drop of Blood: Image and Piety in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Century, Preter 4/1, 2015, p. 37–51.

Mognetti E., Marks of Devotion: Case Study of a Crucifix by Lorenzo di Bicci, [in:] Italian Panel Painting of the Duecento and Trecento, ed. V.M. Schmidt, Washington 2001, p. 355–369.

Mostert M., Reading Images and Text: Some Preliminary Observations Instead of An Introduction, [in:] Reading Images and Texts. Medieval Images and Texts as Forms of Communication: Papers from the Third Utrecht Symposium on Medieval Literacy, Utrecht, 7 – 9 December 2000, ed. M. Hageman, M. Mostert, Turnhout 2005, p. 1–7.

Di Natale M.C., Le croci dipinte in Sicilia: l’area occidentale dal XIV al XVI secolo, Palermo 1992.

Papalexandrou A., Text in Context: Eloquent Monuments and the Byzantine Beholder, W&I 17/3, 2001, p. 259–283.

Pentcheva B.V., Epigrams on Icons, [in:] Art and Text in Byzantine Culture, ed. L. James, Cambridge 2007, p. 120–138.

Petricioli I., Umjetnička baština samostana Sv. Marije u Zadru, [in:] Kulturna baština samostana Svete Marije u Zadru, ed. G. Novak, V. Maštrović, Zadar 1968, p. 61–100.

Randolph A.W.B., Touching Objects. Intimate Experiences of Italian Fifteenth-Century Art, New Haven–London 2014.

Rhoby A., The meaning of inscriptions for the early and middle Byzantine culture. Remarks on the interaction of word, image and beholder, [in:] Scrivere e leggere nell’alto Medioevo: Spoleto, 28 aprile – 4 maggio 2011, Spoleto 2012, p. 731–753.

Riccioni S., La Croce in Rosano oltre il Lazio e la Toscana. Riflessi ‘europei’ della ‘riforma gregoriana’, [in:] La pittura su tavola del secolo XII. Riconsiderazioni e nuove acquisizioni a seguito del restauro della Croce di Rossano, ed. C. Frosinini, G. Wolf, A. Monciatti, Firenze 2012, p. 119–132.

Riccioni S., Epigrafia, spazio liturgico e Riforma gregoriana, un paradigma: il programma di esposizione grafica di Santa Maria in Cosmedin a Roma, HAM 6, 2000, p. 143–156.

Ross L., Language in the Visual Arts: The Interplay of Text and Imagery, Jefferson 2014.

Saenger P., Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading, Stanford 2000.

Sandberg Vavala E., La croce dipinta itaiana e l’iconografia della passione, Verona 1929.

Santini C., Un’antologia pittorica del primo Trecento nella Chiesa di San Francesco a Udine, ArtC 82/762, 1994, p. 185–198.

Scala G., Le epigrafi, [in:] Lo spazio letterario del Medioevo, vol. 2: La circolazione del testo, ed. G. Cavallo, C. Leonardi, E. Menesto, Roma–Salerno 1994, p. 409–441.

Schmidt V.M., Tavole dipinte. Tipologie, destinazioni e funzioni, [in:] L’arte medievale nel contesto 300–1300. Funzioni, iconografia, techniche, ed. P. Piva, Milano 2006, p. 205–239.

Scott Brown P., The verse inscription from the deposition relief at Santo Domingo de Silos: word, image, and act in medieval art, JMIS 1/1, 2009, p. 87–111.

Thoby P., Le Crucifix des Origines au Concile de Trente: étude iconographique, Nantes 1959.

Wilkins D.G., Opening the Doors to Devotion: Trecento Triptychs and Suggestions Concerning Images and Domestic Practice in Florence, [in:] Italian Panel Painting of the Duecento and Trecento, ed. V.M. Schmidt, Washington 2001, p. 371–393.

Williamson B., Altarpieces, Liturgy, Devotion, Spe 79/2, 2004, p. 341–406.

http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/04z/z_1100-1200__Auctor_Incertus__Carmen_Paraeneticum_Ad_Rainaldum__MLT.pdf.html [15 IV 2016]

http://marcusmarulus.blogspot.com/2011/06/jthe os-jedan-splitski-srednjovjekovni.html [15 IV 2016]

First Page

397

Last Page

421

Language

eng

Share

COinS