•  
  •  
 

Title

The Knowledge of Ecclesiastical Law by Socrates of Constantinople Confronted with the Works by Hermias Sozomen

French Title

La connaissance de la loi ecclésiastique chez Socrate de Constantinople en confrontation avec l‘oeuvre de Hermias Sozomène

Abstract

In subject literature there has been a discussion regarding juridical education of Socrates, the author of Ecclesiastical History. For quite long he has been believed to be a lawyer, owing to the title scholastikos, attributed to him. Recently, however, his legal education has been questioned by some scholars. The purpose of this article is to try to answer whether Socrates, as viewed from the work of Sozomen, also presumably a lawyer, could have knowledge of ecclesiastical law and distinguished between the terms of canon (used in ecclesiastical law) and nomos (used in civil law). The analysis of both Ecclesiastical Histories proves that the word canon had numerous meanings for Socrates, who used it while referring to pure ecclesiastical law, as well as to church regulations or practices, ordinances, resolutions, church registry, or even expressions of faith. Moreover, some regulations in ecclesiastical law were not always called canons by Socrates, which demonstrates some lack of precision while using legal terminology. Sozomen, on the other hand, while correcting Socrates’ narration, restricted the meaning of the term canon only to the particular church regulations, excluding those established by heterodox synods, which had a significant impact on how frequently they appeared in the text. The liberty of using legal terms by Socrates can be an additional argument to prove that he was not a professional lawyer, just like some discrepancies in the knowledge of ecclesiastical law are clearly visible in describing powers of the bishops of Rome and Constantinople.

Keywords

Socrates of Constantinople, Hermias Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, ecclesiastical law

References

Dokumenty Soborów Powszechnych, tekst grecki, łaciński, polski, t. I: Nicea I, Konstantynopol I, Efez, Chalcedon, Konstantynopol II, Konstantynopol III, Nicea II (325–787), ed. A. Baron, H. Pietras, Krakow 2002.

Socrates, Histoire ecclésiastique, texte grec de l’ed. G.C. Hansen (GCS), trad. francaise par P. Perichon, P. Maraval [= SC 477, 493, 505, 506], Paris 2004–2007.

Sokrates, Kirchengeschichte, ed. G.C. Hansen, Berlin 1995 [= GCS. NF 1].

Sozomene, Histoire ecclésiastique, t. I–IV, texte grec de l’ed. J. Bidez (GCS), trad. francaise par A-J. Festugiere, B. Grillet, intr. par B. Grillet, G. Sabbah, annot. par G. Sabbah, L. Angliviel de la Beaumelle, Paris 1983, 1996–2008 [= SC 306, 418, 495, 516].

Sozomenus, Kirchengeschichte, ed. J. Bidez, G.C. Hansen, Berlin 1960.

Vita Spyridonis, [in:] La Légende de S. Spyridon, éveque de Trimithonte, ed., trad. P. Van den Ven, Louvain 1953.

A Patristic Greek Lexicon, ed. G.W.H. Lampe, Oxford 1961.

Barnes T.D., Athanasius and Constantius, Cambridge 1993.

Beck H.-G., Nomos, Kanon und Staatsraison in Byzanz, Wien 1981 [= SOAW.PHK, 384].

Bralewski S., Obraz papiestwa w historiografii kościelnej wczesnego Bizancjum, Łodź 2006.

Chesnut G.F., The First Christian Histories. Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, and Evagrius, Paris 1977.

Gaudemet J., Les sources du droit de l’Église en Occident du IIe au VIIe siecle, Paris 1985.

Hess H., The early development of canon law and the Council of Serdica, Oxford 2002.

Janiszewski P., Żywioły w służbie propagandy, czyli po czyjej stronie stoi Bóg. Studium klęsk i rzadkich fenomenów przyrodniczych u historyków Kościoła w IV i V wieku, [in:] Chrześcijaństwo u schyłku starożytności. Studia źródłoznawcze, t. III, ed. T. Derda, E. Wipszycka, Krakow 2000, p. 11–191.

Nuffelen P. van, Un Héritage de Paix et de Piété. Étude sur les histoires ecclésiastiques de Socrate et de Sozomene, Leuven–Paris–Dudley 2004.

Ohme H., Kanon ekklesiastikos, Berlin 1998.

Pennington K., The growth of church law, [in:] The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. II: Constantine to c. 600, ed. A. Casiday, F.W. Norris, Cambridge 2008, p. 386–402.

Rodopoulos P., An Overview of Orthodox Canon Law, Rollinsford 2007.

Simon D., Legislation as Both a World Order and a Legal Order, [in:] Law and Society in Byzantium: Ninth–Twelfth Centuries, ed. A.E. Laiou, D. Simon, Washington 1994, p. 1–27.

Troianos S.N., Nomos und Kanon in Byzanz, [in:] idem, Historia et Ius (1999–2004), vol. II, Athen 2004, p. 199–222.

Urbainczyk T., Observations on the differences between the Church Histories of Socrates and Sozomen, Hi 46, 1997, p. 355–373.

Urbainczyk T., Socrates of Constantinople: Historian of Church and State, Michigan 1997.

Young F., From Nicaea to Chalcedon, London 1983.

Wallraff M., Der Kirchenhistoriker Sokrates. Untersuchungen zu Geschichtsdarstellung, Methode und Person, Gottingen 1997.

Wessel S., The Formation of Ecclesiastical Law in the Early Church, [in:] The History of Byzantine and Eastern Canon Law to 1500, ed. W. Hartmann, K. Pennington, Washington 2012, p. 1–23.

First Page

243

Last Page

255

Language

fre

Share

COinS