•  
  •  
 

Title

Who Could ‘the Godless Ishmaelites from the Yathrib Desert’ Be to the Author of the Novgorod First Chronicle? The "Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius" in Medieval South and East Slavic Literatures

Author ORCID Identifier

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5951-3781 Brzozowska Zofia Aleksandra

Abstract

The work of Pseudo-Methodius, whose creation (in the original Syrian version) dates back to ca. 690, enjoyed considerable popularity in Medieval Slavic literatures. It was translated into Church Slavic thrice. In all likelihood, these translations arose independently of each other in Bulgaria, based on the Greek translation, the so-called ‘first Byzantine redaction’ (from the beginning of the 8th century). From Bulgaria, the Slavic version of the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius spread to other Slavic lands – Serbia and Rus’. In the latter, the work of Pseudo-Methodius must have been known already at the beginning of the 12th century, given that quotations from it appear in the Russian Primary Chronicle (from the second decade of the 12th century). In the 15th century, an original, expanded with inserts taken from other works, Slavic version also came into being, known as the ‘interpolated redaction’. All of the Slavic translations display clear marks of the events that preceded them and the circumstances of the period in which they arose. Above all, the Saracens – present in the original version of the prophecy – were replaced by other nations: in the Novgorod First Chronicle we find the Mongols/Tatars (who conquered Rus’ in the first half of the 13th century).

Keywords

Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius, Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian literature, Old Russian literature, Novgorod First Chronicle

Disciplines

Medieval History | Medieval Studies | Russian Literature | Translation Studies

References

Pseudo-Methodius, Apocalypse (Greek), [in:] Pseudo-Methodius, Apocalypse & An Alexandrian World Chronicle, ed. B. Garstad, Cambridge Mass.–London 2012, p. 2–71.

1st Church Slavic translation: Ст҃го ѿц҃а нашего ѥп҃па Патарьскааго Меѳодия оуказаниѥ истоѥ ѡ цр҃иихь и ѡ послѣднихь лѣтѣхь, [in:] V. Istrin, Otkrovenie Mefodija Patarskogo i apokrifičeskie videnija Daniila v vizantijskoj i slavjano-russkoj literaturach, vol. II, Moskva 1897, p. 84–101.

2nd Church Slavic translation: Меѳодія еп҃скп Паѳаріискаго, ѡ царствіих, [in:] F.J. Thomson, The Slavonic Translations of Pseudo-Methodius of Olympu Apocalypsis, “Търновска книжовна школа” / “Tărnovska knižovna škola” 4, 1985, p. 156–173.

3rd Church Slavic translation: Ст҃го ѿц҃а нашего Меѳодїа епско҃па Патарскаг слово о црстви ѧзыкъ послѣднїих врѣменъ, и извѣстно сказанїе ѿ пръваго чл҃ка, до скончанїа вѣк, [in:] N. Tichonravov, Pamjatniki otrečennoj russkoj literatury, vol. I, Sankt-Peterburg 1863, p. 213–226.

Abbreviated redaction: Стаго Методия ѥпискоупа Патрьскаго оуказани оуказаниѥ истоѥ ѡ цр҃ѣхь и ѡ послѣднихь дн҃ехь и лѣ(т)хъ, [in:] V. Tăpkova-Zaimova, A. Miltenova, Historical-Apocalyptic Literature in Byzantium and Medieval Bulgaria, Sofia 2011, p. 227–256.

Interpolated redaction: Слово ст҃го ѿц҃а нашего Мефодиѧ Таганьскаго ѡ послѣдних лѣтех, [in:] V. Istrin, Otkrovenie Mefodija Patarskogo i apokrifičeskie videnija Daniila v vizantijskoj i slavjano-russkoj literaturach, vol. II, Moskva 1897, p. 115–131.

Lavrent’evskaja letopis’, Leningrad 1926–1928 [= Пoлное собрaние рyсских летописей / Polnoe sobranie russkich letopisej, 1]. English translation: The Russian Primary Chronicle. Laurentian Text, trans. S.H. Cross, O.P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Cambridge 1953.

Novgorodskaja charatejnaja letopis’, ed. M.N. Tichomirov, Moskva 1964. English translation: The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016–1471, trans. R. Michell, N. Forbes, ed. C. Raymond Beazley, A.A. Shakhmatov, London 1914 (= New York 1970).

Aerts W.J., Kortekaas G.A.A., Die Apokalypse des Pseudo-Methodius. Die altesten griechischen und lateinischen Ubersetzungen, Louvain 1998 [= Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium, 569].

Alexander P.J., The Byzantine Apocalyptic Tradition, Berkeley 1985.

Alexander P.J., Psevdo-Mefodij i Efiopija, “Античная древность и средние века” / “Antičnaja drevnost’ i srednie veka” 10, 1973, p. 21–27.

Apokryfy i legendy starotestamentowe Słowian Południowych, ed. G. Minczew, M. Skowronek, Krakow 2006.

Apokryfy Nowego Testamentu, vol. III, Listy i apokalipsy chrześcijańskie. Apokryfy syryjskie. Historia i Przysłowia Achikara. Grota skarbow. Apokalipsa Pseudo-Metodego, ed. M. Starowieyski, Krakow 2017.

Biliarsky I., The Tale of the Prophet Isaiah. The Destiny and Meanings of an Apocryphal Text, Leiden– Boston 2013.

Bonura C., A Forgotten Translation of Pseudo-Methodius in Eighth-Century Constantinople: New Evidence for the Dispersal of the Greek Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius during the Dark Age Crisis, [in:] From Constantinople to the Frontier. The City and the Cities, ed. N.S.M. Matheou, T. Kampianaki, L.M. Bondioli, Leiden–Boston 2016, p. 260–276.

Brock S.P., Two Related Apocalyptic Texts Dated AD 691/2, [in:] The Seventh Century in the West- Syrian Chronicles, ed. A. Palmer, Liverpool 1993, p. 222–250.

Chekin L.S., The Godless Ishmaelites. The Image of the Steppe in 11th–13th century Rus’, “Russian History” 19, 1–4, 1992, p. 9–28.

Cross S.H., The Earliest Allusion in Slavic Literature to the Revelations of Pseudo-Methodius, “Speculum. A Journal of Medieval Studies” 4, 3, 1929, p. 329–339.

Dar słowa. Ze starej literatury serbskiej, ed. A.E. Naumow, Łodź 1983.

Dmitriev L.A., Otkrovenie Mefodija Patarskogo, [in:] Slovar’ knižnikov i knižnosti Drevnej Rusi (XI – pervaja polovina XIV v.), ed. D.S. Lichačev, Leningrad 1987, p. 283–285.

Dziadul P., W oczekiwaniu na Paruzję. Myśl eschatologiczna w prawosławnym piśmiennictwie słowiańskim do połowy XVI w., Krakow 2014.

Greisiger L., The Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius (Syriac), [in:] Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History, vol. I, 600–900, ed. D. Thomas, B. Roggema, Leiden–Boston 2009, p. 163–171.

Hoyland R.G., Seeing Islam as Others Saw it. A Survey and Analysis of the Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Islam, Princeton 1997.

Istrin V., Otkrovenie Mefodija Patarskogo i apokrifičeskie videnija Daniila v vizantijskoj i slavjano- -russkoj literaturach, vol. I–II, Moskva 1897.

Ivanova K., Za Hilendarskija prepis na părvija Simeonov sbornik, “Старобългарска литература” / “Starobălgarska literatura” 5, 1979, p. 57–96.

Jackson P., Medieval Christendom’s Encounter with the Alien, “Historical Research” 74, 2001, p. 347–369.

Jovčeva M., Taseva L., Dvata starobălgarski prevoda na Psevdo-Metodievoto Otkrovenie, “Кири- ло-Методиевски студии” / “Kirilo-Metodievski studii” 10, 1995, p. 22–45.

Jovčeva M., Taseva L., Preslavska leksika v prevoda na Psevdo-Metodievoto Otkrovenie, “Palaeobulgarica / Старобългаристика” 18, 3, 1994, p. 44–51.

Kovacs S., The Origin of the Cumans in the Russian Primary Chronicle, “Chronica” 11, 2011, p. 125–134.

Krivov M.V., Otkrovenie Psevdo-Mefodija Patarskogo kak otraženie narodnych vzgljadov na arabskoe našestvie, “Византийский временник” / “Vizantijskij vremennik” 44, 1983, p. 215–221.

Lavrov P.A., Apokrifičeskie teksty, “Сборник Отделения русского языка и словесности Академии наук” / “Sbornik Otdelenija russkogo jazyka i slovesnosti Akademii nauk” 67, 3, 1899, p. 6–22.

Leszka M.J., The Monk versus the Philosopher. From the History of the Bulgarian-Byzantine War 894–896, “Studia Ceranea. Journal of the Waldemar Ceran Research Center for the History and Culture of the Mediterranean Area and South-Eastern Europe” 1, 2011, p. 55–70.

Leszka M.J., Symeon I Wielki a Bizancjum. Z dziejow stosunkow bułgarsko-bizantyńskich w latach 893–927, Łodź 2013 [= Byzantina Lodziensia, 15].

Leszka M.J., Wątek arabski w stosunkach bułgarsko-bizantyńskich VII–X w., [in:] Rzymianie i barbarzyńcy. Religia – polityka – kultura. Materiały V Kongresu Mediewistow Polskich, vol. VI, ed. T. Wolińska, M. Ożog, K. Kollinger, Rzeszow 2019, p. 15–25.

Leszka M.J., Marinow K., Carstwo bułgarskie. Polityka – społeczeństwo – gospodarka – kultura. 866–971, Warszawa 2015.

Litvinova E.V., Spiski “Otkrovenija Mefodija Patarskogo” v Drevlechranilišče IRLI, “Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы Института русской литературы Академии наук СССР” / “Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoj literatury Instituta russkoj literatury Akademii nauk SSSR” 37, 1983, p. 382–390.

Miklas H., Taseva L., Jovčeva M., Berlinski sbornik. Srednobălgarski knižoven pametnik ot načaloto na XIV v. s dopălnenija ot drugi răkopisi, Sofija–Viena 2006.

Miltenova A., Cikălăt ot istoriko-apokaliptični tvorbi v Dragolovija sbornik – proizhod, iztočnici, kompozicija, “Старобългарска литература” / “Starobălgarska literatura” 25/26, 1991, p. 135–144.

Nikolov A., Empire of the Romans or Tsardom of the Greeks? The Image of Byzantium in the Earliest Slavonic Translations from Greek, “Byzantinoslavica. Revue internationale des etudes Byzantines” 65, 2007, p. 31–39.

Nikolov A., Nabljudenija vărhu cikăla starobălgarski istoriko-apokaliptični tvorbi ot Х–XI v., “Palaeobulgarica / Старобългаристика” 21, 1, 1997, p. 91–107.

Penkova P., Bălgarskite prevodi na Psevdo-Metodievija letopis prez ХІ–ХІV v. i razprostranenieto im v Rusija, “Старобългарска литература” / “Starobălgarska literatura” 2, 1977, p. 102–113.

Petkov J., Altslavische Eschatologie. Texte und Studien zur apokalyptischen Literatur in kirchenslavischer Uberlieferung, Tubingen 2016.

Reinink G.J., Die syrische Apokalypse des Pseudo-Methodius, vol. I–II, Louvain 1993 [= Corpus scriptorum christianorum orientalium, 540–541].

Rudakov V.N., Mongolo-tatary glazami drevnerusskich knižnikov serediny XIII–XV v., Moskva 2014.

Skowronek M., O spiske “Apokalipsisa” Psevdo-Mefodija (“Otkrovenija Mefodija Patarskogo o poslednich vremenach”) Gosudarstvennogo archiva v Buchareste, “Palaeobulgarica / Старобългари-стика” 35, 3, 2011, p. 74–115.

Stradomski J., Bizantyńsko-słowiańskie pisma apokaliptyczno-eschatologiczne w zbiorach rękopisow cerkiewnosłowiańskich w Polsce, [in:] Czas Apokalipsy. Wizje dni ostatecznych w kulturze europejskiej od starożytności do wieku XVII, ed. K. Zalewska-Lorkiewicz, Warszawa 2013, p. 92–98.

Stradomski J., Krzyż jako symbol władzy kosmicznej w bizantyńsko-słowiańskiej tradycji literackiej, “Prace filologiczne. Literaturoznawstwo” 7, 2017, p. 205–215.

Stradomski J., Rękopisy i teksty. Studia nad cerkiewnosłowiańską kulturą literacką Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego i Korony Polskiej do końca XVI w., Krakow 2014.

Šachmatov A., Povest’ vremennych let i ee istočniki, “Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы Института русской литературы Академии наук СССР” / “Trudy Otdela drevnerusskoj literatury Instituta russkoj literatury Akademii nauk SSSR” 4, 1940, p. 9–150.

Tăpkova-Zaimova V., Miltenova A., Historical-Apocalyptic Literature in Byzantium and Medieval Bulgaria, Sofia 2011.

Tăpkova-Zaimova V., Miltenova A., The Problem of Prophecies in Byzantine and Bulgarian Literature, “Balkan Studies” 25, 2, 1984, p. 499–510.

Thomson F.J., The Slavonic Translations of Pseudo-Methodius of Olympu Apocalypsis, “Търновска книжовна школа” / “Tărnovska knižovna škola” 4, 1985, p. 143–173.

Thomson F.J., The Symeonic Florilegium – Problems of Its Origin, Content, Textology and Edition. Together with an English Translation of the Eulogy of Tzar Symeon, “Palaeobulgarica / Старобъ- лгаристика” 17, 1, 1993, p. 37–53.

Tichonravov N., Pamjatniki otrečennoj russkoj literatury, vol. I, Sankt-Peterburg 1863.

Ubierna P., The Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius (Greek), [in:] Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History, vol. I, 600–900, ed. D. Thomas, B. Roggema, Leiden–Boston 2009, p. 245–248.

First Page

369

Last Page

389

Language

eng

Share

COinS