•  
  •  
 

Title

On the Origins of Komitats in the First Bulgarian Empire

Author ORCID Identifier

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9084-667X Hrissimov Nikolay

Abstract

The article gives a critical review of previous views on the origin of komitats as administrative units in the Early Medieval Bulgarian State. Among the Bulgarian researchers, the opinion of their Byzantine origin prevailed, while the only Western researcher dealing with the problem, T. Wasilewski, advocated the thesis of their relationship with Western Europe, suggesting some of the conclusions of I. Venedikov. It is concluded that at the beginning of the 9th century, when Bulgaria expanded its territory almost doubled, its population is multiethnic and already has direct neighbors in the face of Byzantium and the Frankish state needed a new administrative division. The administrative division of the two countries is decided in two fundamentally different ways. In search of ways to solve the problem, the Byzantine themae system and the marks of the Frankish state are presented. Between komitats and the themae system the similarities are only formal, whereas the comparison with the marks proved to be much more efficient. In this case, similarities are found with regard to their location, their way of setting up, the powers and the way of appointing their governors, as well as the names and powers of the governors. The presence of komitats on the northern and western borders of the Early Medieval Bulgarian state was established, but not in the direction of Constantinople. These parts are directly subordinate to the central government, and this division of ‘inside’ and ‘out’ is characteristic of both early-medieval Bulgaria and the Frankish state of that period. It is pointed out the possibility that the Boritarkans are an intermediary between the central authority and the komitats, and on the basis of the source data the possibility is presented that they are directly subordinated to the komiti.

Keywords

First Bulgarian Empire, Byzantium, Frankish state, komitats, marks, administrative units, comes, komit

Disciplines

Byzantine and Modern Greek | Medieval History | Medieval Studies

References

Annales Bertiniani, praef., trans. et comm. Str. Lišev, [in:] Fontes Latini Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. ІІ, ed. Iv. Dujčev et al., Serdicae 1960, p. 286–288.

Beševliev V., Părvobălgarski nadpisi, 2Sofija 1992.

Capitularia Hlotharii I. et regnum Italiae (no. XV), [in:] Monumenta Germaniae historica, Legum sectio II. Capitularia regum Francorum, vol. II, ed. A. Boretius, V. Krause, Hannoverae 1897, p. 59–110.

Constantine Porphyrogennetos: The Book of Ceremonies, trans. A.M.M. Tall, Leiden–Boston 2017 [= Byzantina Australiensia, 18].

Constantini Porphyrogeniti III. De ceremoniis aulae byzantinae, praef., trans. et comm. G. Cankova- -Petkova, P. Tivčev, [in:] Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. V, ed. G. Cankova-Petkova et al., Serdicae 1964, p. 220–229.

Einhardus, praef., trans. et comm. Str. Lišev, [in:] Fontes Latini Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. ІІ, ed. Iv. Dujčev et al., Serdicae 1960, p. 29–39.

Georgius Monachus Continuatus, praef., trans. et comm. G. Cankova-Petkova, [in:] Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. VІ, ed. G. Cankova-Petkova et al., Serdicae 1965, p. 133–158.

Iliev I., The Long Life of Saint Klement of Ochrid. A Critical Edition, “Byzantinobulgarica” 9, 1995, p. 62–120.

Kalojanov A., Spasova M., Mollov T., „Skazanie za železnija krast” i epohata na car Simeon, Veliko Tărnovo 2007.

Leonis Grammatici Chronographia, praef., trans. et comm. V. Tăpkova-Zaimova, [in:] Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. V, ed. G. Cankova-Petkova et al., Serdicae 1964, p. 141–168.

Mansi G.D., Sacrorum consiliorum nova et amplissima collection, vol. XI, Leipzig 1901.

Monachus Sangallensis, praef., trans. et comm. Str. Lišev, [in:] Fontes Latini Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. ІІ, ed. Iv. Dujčev et al., Serdicae 1960, p. 282–285.

Pseudo-Symeonis Chronographia, praef., trans. et comm. G. Cankova-Petkova, [in:] Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. V, ed. G. Cankova-Petkova et al., Serdicae 1964, p. 169–182.

Scriptores rerum Germanicarum, Nova series (SS rer. Germ. N.S.), vol. XII, Notkeri Balbuli, Gesta Karoli Imperatoris, Berolini 1959.

Suda Online http://www.stoa.org/sol/ [15 VIII 2018].

Suidae Lexicon, praef., trans. et comm. G. Cankova-Petkova, [in:] Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. V, ed. G. Cankova-Petkova et al., Serdicae 1964, p. 308–310.

Theophanes Confessor, trans. V. Beševliev, G. Cankova-Petkova, praef. et comm. G. Cankova-Petkova, [in:] Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. III, ed. Iv. Dujčev et al., Serdicae 1960, p. 226–289.

Vita s. Clementis Achridensis, [in:] Fontes Graeci Historiae Bulgaricae, vol. ІХ, Theophylacti Achridensis, archiepiscopi Bulgariae, scripta ad historiam Bulgariae pertinentia, pars 2, Vita s. Clementis Achridensis, Historia martyrii XV martyrum Tiberiupolitanorum, epistulae, carmen ad Nicephorum Bryennium, pars expositionis in epistulam Pauli apostoli ad Romanos, ed. I.G. Iliev, Serdicae 1994, p. 10–41.

Andreev J., Naryšskaja nadpis’ knjazja Simeona i administrativnoe ustrojstvo bolgarskogo gosudar’stva v konce ІХ i načale Х v., “Etudes Balkaniques” 14, 3, 1978, p. 121–131.

Andreev M., Milkova F., Istorija na bălgarskata feodalna dăržava i pravo, Sofija 1993.

Angelov D., Administrativno-voenna uredba, [in:] Istorija na Bălgarija v četirinadeset toma, vol. II, Părva bălgarska dăržava, ed. D. Angelov, Sofija 1981, p. 169–181.

Angelov D., Komit, [in:] Kirilo-Metodievska Enciklopedija, vol. II, I–O, ed. P. Dinekov, Sofija 1995, p. 384.

Angelov D., Andreev M., Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava i pravo, Sofija 1972.

Borisov B., Archeologičeskie svidetel’stva prabolgarskogo prisustvija na juge Balkan, “Поволжская археология” / “Povolžskaja archeologija” 2, 2, 2012, p. 50–65.

Borisov B., Arheologičeski danni za bălgaro-vizantijskite otnošenija prez Rannoto srednovekovie ot teritorijata na dnešna Južna Bălgarija (VII – tretata četvart na X v.), “Епохи” / “Epohi” 26, 2, 2018, p. 373–382.

Borisov B., Do tuk stiga Bălgarija (Beležki po hronologijata i razvitieto na selištnata mreža v Južna Bălgarija po vremeto na Părvoto bălgarsko carstvo), [in:] Ottuka započva Bălgarija. Materiali ot vtorata nacionalna konferencija po istorija, arheologija i kulturen turizăm „Pătuvane kăm Bălgarija” – Šumen, 14–16.05.2010 godina, ed. Iv. Jordanov, Šumen 2011, p. 231–251.

Bowlus C.R., Franks, Moravians, and Magyars: The Struggle for the Middle Danube, 788–907, Philadelphia 1995.

Božilov Iv., Gjuzelev V., Istorija na srednovekovna Bălgarija VІІ–ХІV vek, Sofija 1999.

Bugarski I., Radišić M., The Central Balkans in the Early Middle Ages: Archaeological Testimonies to Change, [in:] Byzantine Heritage and Serbian art, vol. I, Process of Byzantinisation and Serbian Archaeology, ed. V. Bikić, Belgrade 2016, p. 91–99.

Bury J.B., A History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I (A.D. 802–867), London 1912.

Daškov S.B., Imperatory Vizantii, Moskva 1996.

Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol. VIII, Macbeth – Mystery plays, New York 1987.

Gil’ferding A.F., Sobranie sočinenij, vol. I, pars 1, Istorija serbov i bolgar, pars 2, Kirill i Mefodij, pars 3, Obzor českoj istorii, Sankt Peterburg 1868.

Gjuselev V., Bulgarisch-Frankische beziehungen in der Ersten Halfte des IX Jhs., “Byzantinobulgarica” 2, 1966, p. 15–39.

Hrissimov N., Bălgarskata dăržavnost v starata Rodina (VІІ–ХІ в.): taka narečenata Černa Bălgarija, [in:] Bălgarska nacionalna istorija, vol. ІІ, Drevnite bălgari. Stara Velika Bălgarija, ed. Pl. Pavlov, Veliko Tărnovo 2013, p. 249–296.

Hristov Ya., Štrihi kăm „Skazanie za železnija krăst”, Blagoevgrad 2012.

Iliev I., The Long Life of Saint Klement of Ochrid. A Critical Edition, “Byzantinobulgarica” 9, 1995, p. 62–120.

Kănev N., Mjastoto na strategijata Trakija văv vizantijskata rangova jerarhija prez ІХ–Х v. spored taktikonite ot tova vreme, [in:] N. Kănev, Vizantinobălgarski studii, Veliko Tărnovo 2013, p. 129–143.

Kolarov Hr., Srednovekovnata bălgarska dăržava (uredba, harakteristika, otnošenija săs săsednite narodi), Veliko Tărnovo 1977.

Koledarov P., Političeska geografija na srednovekovnata bălgarska dăržava, vol. I, (679–1018), Sofija 1979.

Komar O.V., Chozars’kij kaganat u VІІІ–Х st., [in:] Ukraiїna: chronologіja rozvitku. Davnі slov’jani ta Kiїvs’ka Rus’, vol. II, ed. P. Toločko, G. Ivakin, O. Mocja, Kiїv 2009, p. 118–125.

Kozlov V., Naselenie stepnogo meždureč’ja Dunaja i Dniestra konca VIII – načala XI vekov n.je.: balkano-dunajskaja kul’tura, Kazan’–Sankt-Peterburg–Kišinev 2015.

Kulakovskij Ju.A., Istorija Vizantii, vol. III, (602–717 gg.), Kiev 1915.

Lexikon des Mittelalters, vol. III, Codex Wintoniensis bis Erziehungs- und Bildungswesen, Stuttgart 1986.

Lexikon des Mittelalters, vol. VI, Lukasbilder bis Plantagenet, Stuttgart 1993.

Marinow K., Gory Hemos jako miejsce schronienia, baza wypadowa i punkt obserwacyjny w świetle bułgarsko-bizantyńskich zmagań zbrojnych okresu wczesnego średniowiecza, “Balcanica Posnaniensia” 20, 2013, p. 5–17.

Marinow K., The Haemus Mountains and the Geopolitics of the First Bulgarian Empire: An Overview, “Зброник радова Византолошког института” / “Zbornik radova Vizantološkog instituta” 51, 2014, p. 17–32.

Marinow K., Planinskata veriga Hemus i bălgarskata političeska granica prez rannosrednovekovnija period (Obšt pogled), [in:] Balkanite – ezik, istorija, kultura, vol. ІV, Materiali ot Četvartata meždunarodna naučna konferencija „Balkanite – ezik, istorija, kultura”, Veliko Tărnovo, 18–20 oktomvri 2013 g., ed. Kr. Mutafova, Veliko Tărnovo 2015, p. 105–120.

Marinow K., Strategičeskata rolja na Staroplaninskata i Srednogorskata verigi v svetlinata na bălgaro- -vizantijskite voenni sblăsăci prez VII–XI vek, “Известия на Регионалния исторически музей – Габрово” / “Izvestija na “Regionalnija istoričeski muzej – Gabrovo” 2, 2014, p. 111–134.

Marinow K., V derbite na Hemus (Za njakoi strani v roljata na planinata prez perioda VII–IX v.), “Palaeobulgarica” 37, 4, 2013, p. 60–73.

Milkova F., Zakonodatelstvoto na han Krum, [in:] Bălgarija 1300. Institucii i dăržavna tradicija, vol. II, ed. Ev. Buzaski, Sofija 1982, p. 235–244.

Moravcsik Gy., Byzantinoturcica, vol. II, Berlin 1958.

Mutafčiev P., Balkanăt v našata istorija, [in:] P. Mutafčiev, Kniga za bălgarite, ed. V. Gjuzelev, Sofija 1987, p. 65–89.

Nikolov G.N., Centralizăm i regionalizăm v rannosrednovekovna Bălgarija (kraja na VII – načaloto na XI v.), Sofija 2005.

Ostrogorski G., Istorija na Vizantijskata dăržava, trans. Il. Slavova, Sofija [s.a.].

Pavlov Pl., Političeskoto nasledstvo na Avarskija haganat i bălgarskite vladeteli (ІХ–ХІ v.), [in:] Problemi na prabălgarskata istorija i kultura, vol. III, ed. R. Rašev, Sumen 1997, p. 55–66.

Pohl W., Die Awaren. Ein Steppevolk in Mitteleuropa 567–822 n. Chr., Munchen 2002.

Rau R., Quellen zur karolingischen Reichsgeschichte, vol. I, Die Reichsannalen. Einhard: Leben Karls des Gro.en. Zwei „Leben” Ludwigs. Nithard: Geschichten, Darmstadt 1968 [repr. 1987; = Ausgewahlte Quellen zur deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters, 5].

Slavova T., Vladetel i administracija v rannosrednovekovna Bălgarija. Filologičeski aspekti, Sofija 2010.

Smith J.M.H., Fines Imperii: The Marches, [in:] The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. II, c. 70–900, ed. R. McCormick, Cambridge 2008, p. 169–189.

Stankov R., O leksičeskich moravizmach v drevnich slavjanskich rukopisjach, [in:] Preslavska knižovna škola, vol. IX, ed. M. Tihova, Šumen 2006, p. 29–52.

Venedikov Iv., Administrativna uredba na Părvata bălgarska dăržava, [in:] Bălgarija 1300. Institucii i dăržavna tradicija, vol. I, ed. Ev. Bužaski, Sofija 1981, p. 139–159.

Venedikov Iv., Voennoto i administrativnoto ustrojstwo na Bălgarija prez ІХ i Х vek, Sofija 1979.

Wasilewski T., Origine de l’organisation administrative des “comitates” en Bulgarie medievale, “Etudes Balkaniques” 14, 1, 1978, p. 84–88.

Wolfram H., The Creation of the Carolingian Frontier-System c. 800, [in:] Transformation of Frontier from Late Antiquity to Carolingians, ed. W. Pohl, I. Wood, H. Reimitz, Leiden–Boston 2001, p. 233–260.

Zlatarski V.N., Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove, vol. II, Părvo bălgarsko carstvo, pars 2, Ot slavjanizacijata na dăržavata do padanaeto na Părvoto carstvo, Sofija 1927 [repr. 1994].

Zlatarski V.N., Koi sa bili vatrešni i vanšni boljari?, [in:] V.N. Zlatarski, Izbrani proizvedenija, vol. І, ed. P. Petrov, Sofija 1972, p. 298–312.

Zlatarski V.N. [rec.] Balasčev G., Novonajdenijatъ nadpisъ otъ vremeto na carь Simeona… – “Сборник за Народни умотворения, наука и книжнина” / “Sbornik za Narodni umotvorenija, nauka i knižnina” 15, 1898, p. 20–40.

Žekov Ž., Bălgarija i Vizantija. Voenna administracija VІІ–ІХ v., Sofija 2007.

First Page

429

Last Page

453

Language

eng

Share

COinS