•  
  •  
 

Author ORCID Identifier

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5699-5877 Allen David

Abstract

Salvador Dalí claimed that he made his whole life “a work of alchemy.” He saw in alchemy the principle of metamorphosis and “the transmutation of bodies.” Carl Jung recognized “imaginatio” as the key to alchemy. As Patrick Harpur suggests: “The Work takes place in a realm intermediate between mind and matter. It is a daimonic process, a ‘chemical theatre’ in which processes and psychic transformations interpenetrate.” The alchemist does not simply work on matter, but on the self.

In Dalí’s “paranoiac-critical method,” objects similarly seem to exist in an “intermediate realm between mind and matter”; they are animated presences, with a life of their own. The Dalínean double-image is itself a kind of alchemical magic, invoking the “transmutation of bodies.”

In 1946, Dalí began work for the Walt Disney Company on a short film, Destino. This would be, he claimed, the “First Surrealist Cartoon.” The appeal of animation for him may have been based in part in what Eisenstein termed “plasmaticness”: the “ability to dynamically assume any form.” Animation, then, may be seen as a kind of “chemical theatre.” As a “realm between mind and matter,” it also functioned for Dalí as a form of mundus imaginalis, in which he could engage with the “obsessing” images in his psyche.

In Destino, Dalí invoked the alchemical process as a journey to tranfiguration and psychological “rebirth.” The film was not completed in his lifetime; this account is based on the original storyboards which he produced.

Keywords

Gala, surrealism, paranoiac-critical method, Jung, Eisenstein, Breton

Disciplines

Arts and Humanities | Film and Media Studies | Interdisciplinary Arts and Media

References

Baert, Barbara. “Kairos Or Occasion as Paradigm in the Visual Medium: Nachleben, Iconography, Hermeneutics.” Antwerp Royal Museum Annual, 2013–2014 (Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen 2013–2014). Ed. Elsje Janssen, Lynn F. Jacobs, Valerie Herremans et al. Antwerp: Garant Uitgevers, 2016. 193–251. Print.

Bauduin, Theresa. Surrealism and the Occult: Occultism and Esotericism in the Work and Movement of André Breton. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP; Chicago, IL: Chicago UP, 2014. Print. https://doi.org/10.1515/9789048523023

Bossert, David A. Dalí and Disney: “Destino.” The Story, Artwork, and Friendship Behind the Legendary Film. Glendale, CA: Disney Editions, 2015. Print.

Breton, André. “Second Surrealist Manifesto.” Manifestoes of Surrealism. Trans. Helen R. Lane and Richard Seaver. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor, 1972. 117–94. Print. https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.7558

Canemaker, John. Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Story Boards. New York, NY: Hyperion, 1999. Print.

Corbin, Henry. Alone with the Alone: Creative Imagination in the Sũfism of Ibn ‘Arabi. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1997. Print.

Cowlan, Paul F. Splendor Solis: A Consideration. N.p.: Alembic, 2016. Print.

Dalí, Salvador. “Conquest of the Irrational.” The Collected Writings of Salvador Dalí. Ed. Haim Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998. 262–72. Print.

Dalí, Salvador. “Metamorphosis of Narcissus.” Trans. Francis Scarpe. The Collected Writings of Salvador Dalí. Ed. Haim Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998. 324–29. Print.

Dalí, Salvador. “Surrealism in Hollywood.” Dalí & Film. Ed. Matthew Gale. London: Tate, 2007. 154–55. Print.

Dalí, Salvador. The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí. Trans. Haakon M. Chevalier. New York, NY: Dover, 1993. Print.

Dalí, Salvador. The Tragic Myth of Millet’s Angelus: Paranoiac-Critical Interpretation. Trans. Eleanor R. Morse. St. Petersburg, FL: Salvador Dalí Museum, 1986. Print.

Dalí, Salvador. The Unspeakable Confessions of Salvador Dalí, as Told to André Parinaud. Trans. Harold J. Salemson. London: Quartet, 1977. Print.

Dalí, Salvador. “Total Camouflage for Total War.” The Collected Writings of Salvador Dalí. Ed. Haim Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998. 339–43. Print.

Dalí & Disney: A Date with Destino. Dir. Ted Nicolaou. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, 2010. Film.

Destino. Dir. Dominique Monféry. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, 2010. Film.

Dominguez, Armando. “Lyrics to ‘Destino.’” Parksandrides.co. Parks & Rides 14 Aug. 2018. Web. 19 Jan. 2020.

Eisenstein, Sergei. Eisenstein on Disney. Trans. Alan Upchurch. Ed. Jay Leyda. Calcutta: Seagull, 1986. Print.

Elder, Bruce. Dada, Surrealism, and the Cinematic Effect. Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier UP, 2013. Print.

Eliade, Mircea. Patterns in Comparative Religion. Trans. Rosemary Sheed. Lincoln, NE: U of Nebraska P/Bison, 1996. Print.

Fanés, Fèlix. “Destino.” Dalí & Film. Ed. Matthew Gale. London: Tate, 2007. 186–93. Print.

Finkelstein, Haim. Salvador Dalí’s Art and Writing 1927–1942: The Metamorphoses of Narcissus. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. Print.

Fitzgerald, Jim. The Bell, The Messenger of Transformation. King’s Lynn: Guild of Pastoral Psychology, 2020. Print.

Gibson, Ian. The Shameful Life of Salvador Dalí. London: Faber and Faber, 1997. Print.

Gifford, Paul. Love, Desire and Transcendence in French Literature: Deciphering Eros. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016. Print. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315250175

Harpur, Patrick. The Philosopher‘s Secret Fire: A History of the Imagination. Victoria, Australia: Blue Angel Gallery, 2007. Print.

Haycock, Daniel E. Being and Perceiving. London: Manupod, 2011. Print.

Hazucha, Andrew. “Salvador Dalí and the Surrealism of Baseball.” Baseball/Literature/Culture: Essays, 2006–2007. Ed. Ronald E. Kates and Warren Tormey. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2008. 105–13. Print.

Hench, John. Interview by John Culhane. Walt’s People. Volume 11. Ed. Didier Ghez. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris, 2011. 152–74. Print.

Hench, John. Interview by Ted Nicolaou. Dalí & Disney: A Date with Destino. Dir. Ted Nicolaou. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, 2010. Film.

Hillman, James. The Thought of the Heart and the Soul of the World. Putnam, CT: Spring, 2014. Print.

Hoeveler, Diane Long. Romantic Androgyny: The Woman Within. London: Pennsylvania State UP, 1990. Print.

Irvine, Ian J. “Alchemy and the Technique of Active Imagination.” Semanticscholar.org. Semantic Scholar 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2020.

Jach, Aleksandra, ed. Zmiennokształtność: Eisenstein Jako Metoda/Shape-shifting: Eisenstein as Method. Łódź: Muzeum Sztuki, 2018. Print.

Joseph-Lowery, Frédérique. Dalí Dance and Beyond. Flushing, NY: Godwin-Ternbach Museum, 2010. Print.

Jung, Carl Gustav. The Collected Works, Volume 8: The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. Trans. R. F. C. Hull. Ed. Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850952

Jung, Carl Gustav. The Collected Works, Volume 12: Psychology and Alchemy. Trans. R. F. C. Hull. Ed. Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974. Print. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850877

Jung, Carl Gustav. The Collected Works, Volume 14: Mysterium Coniunctionis: An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy. Trans. R. F. C. Hull. Ed. Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970. Print. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850853

Jung, Carl Gustav. The Collected Works, Volume 18: The Symbolic Life. Trans. R. F. C. Hull. Ed. Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. Print. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400851010

King, Elliott H. Dalí, Surrealism and Cinema. Harpenden: Kamera, 2007. Print.

Lepetit, Patrick. The Esoteric Secrets of Surrealism: Origins, Magic, and Secret Societies. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2012. Print.

Lomas, David. The Haunted Self: Surrealism, Psychoanalysis, Subjectivity. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 2000. Print.

Maslow, A. H. Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences. London: Penguin, 1964. Print.

McGirk, Tim. Wicked Lady: Salvador Dalí’s Muse. London: Hutchinson, 1989. Print.

Monféry, Dominique. Interview by Ted Nicolaou. Dalí & Disney: A Date with Destino. Dir. Ted Nicolaou. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, 2010. Film.

Neumann, Erich. The Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype. Trans. Ralph Mannheim. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1955. Print.

Nicolaou, Ted, dir. Dalí & Disney: A Date with Destino. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, 2010. Film.

Pallant, Chris. Demystifying Disney: A History of Disney Feature Animation. New York, NY: Continuum, 2011. Print. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781628928655

Pauck, Wilhelm, and Marion Pauck. Paul Tillich: His Life and Thought. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2015. Print.

Raff, Jeffrey. The Wedding of Sophia: The Divine Feminine in Psychoidal Alchemy. Berwick, ME: Nicolas-Hays, 2003. Print.

Ruffa, Astrid. “Operations magiques et toute-puissance d’eros.” Salvador Dalí sur les traces d’eros: Actes du colloque international de Cerisy. Ed. Frédérique Joseph-Lowery and Isabelle Roussel-Gillet. Geneva: Éditions notari, 2010. 193–208. Print.

Smith, Robert C. The Wounded Jung: Effects of Jung’s Relationships on His Life and Work. Evanston, IL: Northwest UP, 1996. Print.

von Franz, Marie-Louise. Alchemy: An Introduction to the Symbolism and the Psychology. Toronto: Inner City, 1980. Print.

von Franz, Marie-Louise. Patterns of Creativity Mirrored in Creation Myths. Dallas, TX: Spring, 1972. Print.

Zuch, Rainer. Die Surrealisten und C. G. Jung: Studien zur Rezeption der analytischen Psychologie im Surrealismus am Beispeil von Max Ernst, Victor Brauner und Hans Arp. Weimar: VDG, 2004. Print.

First Page

49

Last Page

66

Language

eng

Share

COinS