Since the mid-twentieth century, we have passed from a time where sexual frankness was actively obstructed by censorship and industry self-regulation to an age when pornography is circulated freely and is fairly ubiquitous on the Internet. Attitudes to sexually explicit material have accordingly changed a great deal in this time, but more at the level of the grounds on which it is objected to rather than through a general acceptance of it in the public sphere. Critical objections now tend to be political or aesthetic in nature rather than moralistic. Commercial cinema still seems wary of a frank exploration of sexuality, preferring to address it tangentially in genres such as the erotic thriller. In Europe, an art house canon of sexually explicit movies has formed, starting with Bertolucci’s Last Tango in Paris (1972) and the French-produced In the Realm of the Senses (1976). This article looks at the steps taken since the 1970s to challenge out-of-date taboos and yet at the same time differentiate the serious film about se Xfrom both pornography (operating in parallel with mainstream cinema but in its shadow) and the exploitation film. After reviewing the art film’s relationship with both hard and soft core, two recent films, Intimacy (2000) and 9 Songs (2005), are analyzed for their explicit content and for the way they articulate their ideas about sex through graphic depictions of sexual acts. Compulsive and/or claustrophobic unsimulated sexual behaviour is used as a way of asking probing questions of intimacy (and its filmability). This is shown to be a very different thing from the highly visual and staged satisfactions of pornography.


Arts and Humanities | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Ai no korida [In the Realm of the Senses]. Dir. Nagisa Oshima. Screenplay by Nagisa Oshima. Perf. Tatsuya Fuji, Eiko Matsuda. Argos Films, 1976. Film

Bataille, Georges. Erotism: Death and Sensuality. Trans. Mary Dalwood. San Francisco: City Lights, 1962. Print

The Comfort of Strangers. Dir. Paul Schrader. Screenplay by Harold Pinter. Perf. Christopher Walken, Rupert Everett, Helen Mirren, Natasha Richardson. Erre Produzioni/Sovereign Pictures, 1990. Film

Falcon, Richard. “The Limits of Sex.” Rev. of Intimacy, dir. Patrice Chéreau. Sight and Sound 11.7 (2001): 20–24. Print

Friedkin, William. Interview by Linda Ruth Williams. The Erotic Thriller in Contemporary Cinema. Ed. Linda Ruth Williams. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2005. 134–42. Print

Henry and June. Dir. Philip Kaufman. Screenplay by Philip Kaufman. Perf. Fred Ward, Maria de Medeiros, Uma Thurman. Universal, 1990. Film

Intimacy. Dir. Patrice Chéreau. Screenplay by Patrice Chéreau and Anne- Louise Trividic. Perf. Mark Rylance, Kerry Fox, Timothy Spall. Studio Canal, 2001. Film

Kureishi, Hanif. Intimacy. London: Faber, 1998. Print

Kureishi, Hanif. “Nightlight.” Love in a Blue Time. New York: Scribner, 1997. Print

Last Tango in Paris. Dir. Bernardo Bertolucci. Screenplay by Bernardo Bertolucci and Franco Arcalli. Perf. Marlon Brando, Maria Schneider. United Artists, 1972. Film

Lewis, Jon. Hollywood v. Hard Core: How the Struggle over Censorship Saved the Modern Film Industry. New York: New York UP. Print

McEwan, Ian. The Comfort of Strangers. London: Picador, 1982. Print

9 Songs. Dir. Michael Winterbottom. Screenplay by Michael Winterbottom. Perf. Kieran O’Brien, Margo Stilley. Revolution Films, 2005. Film

Turim, Maureen. The Films of Oshima Nagisa: Images of a Japanese Iconoclast. Berkeley, CA: U of California P, 1998. Print

Williams, Linda. Hard Core: Power, Pleasure, and the “Frenzy of the Visible. London: Pandora, 1990. Print

Williams, Linda. Screening Sex. Durham: Duke UP, 2008. Print

Williams, Linda. ed. Porn Studies. Durham: Duke UP, 2004. Print

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