Author ORCID Identifier Nowacki Marek


The aim of the paper is to identify unique elements of the brands of Polish cities and to identify similarities and differences between them. The work attempts to answer the following research questions: Which elements significantly differentiate the brands of studied cities in online reviews? and Which of the studied cities are the most similar in terms of brand elements and which differ in this regard. The data for analysis was obtained from TripAdvisor. Reviews about areas of tourist concentration – old markets or old towns – from five Polish cities: Poznań, Wrocław, Kraków, Gdańsk and Warsaw were analysed (N = 5125). The research shows that Gdańsk and Warsaw as well as Poznań and Wrocław have the most similar brand elements. The Kraków brand is the more unique in relation to other cities.


brand equity, destinations, cities, TripAdvisor, Text Mining


Aaker, D.A. (2009). Managing brand Eequity: Capitalizing on the value of a brand name. New York: The Free Press.

Allahyari, M., Pouriyeh, S., Assefi, M., Safaei, S., Trippe, E.D., Gutirrez, J.B., Kochut, K. (2017). A brief survey of text mining: Classification, clustering and extraction techniques, ArXiv e-prints, Halifax: KDD Bigdas.

Boo, S., Busser, J., Baloglu, S. (2009). A model of customer-based brand equity and its application to multiple destinations. Tourism Management, 30, 219-231.

Brown, G., Getz D., 2005. Linking wine preferences to the choice of wine tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 43 (3), 266-276.

Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management, 21 (1), 97-116.

Cantallops, A.S., Salvi, F. (2014). New consumer behavior: A review of research on eWOM and hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 41-51.

Casalo, L.V., Flavian, C., Guinaliu, M., Ekinci, Y. (2015). Do online hotel rating schemes influence booking behaviors? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 49, 28-36.

Florek, M. (2014). Kapitał marki miasta zorientowany na konsumenta. Źródła i pomiar. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu.

Hill, M.O. (1974). Correspondence analysis: A neglected multivariate method. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics), 23 (3), 340-354.

Jalilvand, M.R. (2016). Word-of-mouth vs. mass media: Their contributions to destination image formation. Anatolia, 28 (2), 151-162.

Jalilvand, M.R., Shekarchizadeh, S.S., Samiei, N. (2011). Electronic word-of-mouth: Challenges and opportunities. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 42-46.

Keller, K.L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57 (1), 1-22.

Kenneth, S., Bordens, K.S., Abbott, B.B. (2008). Research design and methods. A process approach. Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kladou, S., Mavragani, E. (2015). Assessing destination image: An online marketing approach and the case of TripAdvisor. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4 (3), 187-193.

Konecnik, M., Gartner, W. (2013). Customer-based brand equity for a destination. Annals of Tourism Research, 34 (2), 400-421.

Kotler, P.T., Bowen, J.T., Makens, J., Baloglu, S. (2017). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (7th edition, Global Edition). Essex: Pearson.

Kuhzady, S., Ghasemi, V. (2019). Factors influencing customers’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction with hotels: A text-mining approach, Tourism Analysis, 24 (1), 69-79.

Leicht, T. (2016). Establishing external validity for consumerbased place brand equity scales: Mission impossible or a matter of approach? In: T.C. Melewar, K. Dinnie, C. Fona, C. Dennis (eds), Conference proceedings of inaugural conference of the international place branding association (pp. 248-256). London: Middlesex University.

Liu, Y., Huangb, K., Bao, J., Chenc, K. (2019). Listen to the voices from home: An analysis of Chinese tourists’ sentiments regarding Australian destinations. Tourism Management, 71, 337-347.

Lucarelli, A. (2012). Unraveling the complexity of “city brand equity”: A three-dimensional framework. Journal of Place Management and Development, 5 (3), 231-252.

Nakaima, K., Marchiori, E., Cantoni, L. (2019). Identification of competing destination brand: The case of Okinawa Island. In: J. Personen, J. Neidhardt (eds), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism. Cham: Springer.

Niezgoda, A. (2017). Rola doświadczeń i relacji z podróży w kształtowaniu wizerunku miejsca. Marketing i Zarządzanie, 1 (47), 221-228.

Nowacki, M. (2017). Atrakcje turystyczne światowych metropolii w opinii użytkowników TripAdvisora. Studia Periegetica, 3 (19), 23-41.

Nowacki, M. (2019). World cities’ image in TripAdvisor users’ reviews. e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR), 16 (2/3), 146-155.

Papadopoulos, N. (2004). Place branding: Evolution, meaning and implications. Place Branding, 1 (1), 36-49.

Pike, S. (2005). Tourism destination branding complexity. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14 (4), 258-259.

Pl.Wikipedia. Retrived from:

Simeon, M.I., Buonincontri, P., Cinquegrani, F., Martone, A. (2017). Exploring tourists’ cultural experiences in Naples through online reviews. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 8 (2), 220-238.

Smith, M., Sulyok, J., Jancsik, A., Puczkó, L., Kiss, K., Sziva, I., Papp-Váry, Á.F., Michalkó, G. (2018). Nomen est omen – Tourist image of the Balkans. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 67 (2), 173-188.

Stanisz, A. (2007). Przystępny kurs statystyki z zastosowaniem STATISTICA PL na przykładach z medycyny. Vol. 3: Analizy wielowymiarowe. Kraków: StatSoft.

Tamajón, L.G., Valiente, G.C. (2015). Barcelona seen through the eyes of TripAdvisor: Actors, typologies and components of destination image in social media platforms. Current Issues in Tourism, 20 (1), 33-37.

TripAdvisor. Retrieved from: (15.01.2019).

TripAdvisor. Madia Centre. Retived from: (18.02.2019).

Web Scraper. Retived from: (17.01.2019).

Woodside, A.G., Cruickshank, B.F., Dehuang, N. (2007). Stories visitors tell about Italian cities as destination icons. Tourism Management, 28, 162-174.

First Page


Last Page