Tourism / Turyzm

Author ORCID Identifier Cieślikowski Krzysztof Brusokas Andrius


The paper identifies selected determinants of attractiveness of international academic conferences as products on the contemporary international tourism market, especially on the business tourism market. To achieve this aim, methods of analysing the literature, reports, synthesis, along with passive and active observation were used. In addition, a direct survey using a research questionnaire via a website and addressed to participants on an Erasmus International Week in Kaunas was made. Some of the most important conditions of the attractiveness of the conference for participants, including transport and information accessibility as well as to the originality of the destination and the leisure program for participants, were indicated. Contemporary international academic conferences lasting a few days epitomize multiple products on tourism market. The article is empirical, but it also presents ideas for the development of conferences as attractive products in the contemporary economy of the European Union.


tourism product, system product, meetings industry, international conference


Agha, N. (2011). The Economic Impact of Stadiums and Teams. Journal of Sports Economics, 14 (3), 227-252. DOI:

Ayaz, N., Samata, N. (2017). Integration of congress tourism to the cultural tourism destinations as an economic product. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 5 (1), 53-61. DOI:

Berbeka, J., Borodako, K., Niemczyk, A., Seweryn, R. (2014). Influence of the meetings industry on the economy of Kraków. Cracow: Foundation of the Cracow University of Economics.

Borodako, K., Berbeka, J., Rudnicki, M. (2014). The potential of local KIBS companies as a determinant of tourism development in Krakow. Tourism Economics, 20 (6), 1337-1348. DOI:

Borodako, K., Kožić, I. (2016). Cooperation patterns in the tourism business: The case of Poland. Prague Economic Papers, 25 (2), 160-174. DOI:

Breiter, D., Milman, A. (2006). Participants’ needs and service priorities in a large convention center: Application of the importance – performance theory. Tourism Management, 27 (6), 1364-1370. DOI:

Chang, S. (2018). Experience economy in the hospitality and tourism context. Tourism Management Perspectives, 27, 83-90. DOI:

Cieślikowski, K., (2014). Rynek turystyki konferencyjnej. Tom I: Podstawy teoretyczne. Funkcjonowanie i rozwój na świecie. Katowice: Wydawncitwo Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego.

Cieślikowski, K. (2015). Business tourism as innovative product for destinations. Innovative (Eco-) Technology, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 2, 35-40.

Cieślikowski, K., Brusokas, A. (2017). Determinants of effective management in sport with the use of large sport arenas in selected cities. European Journal of Service Management, 21, 5-10. DOI:

Cieślikowski, K., Brusokas, A. (2019). Meetings industry in Kaunas. Report. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego.

Crouch, G. I., Ritchie, J.R. (1997). Convention site selection research. Journal of Convention & Exhibition Management, 1 (1), 49-69. DOI:

Crouch, G.I., Louviere, J.J. (2004). The Determinants of convention site selection: A logistic choice model from experimental data. Journal of Travel Research, 43 (2), 118-130. DOI:

Davidson, R., Cope, B. (2003). Business travel: Conferences, incentive travel, exhibitions, corporate hospitality, and corporate travel. New York: Pearson Education, Financial Times.

Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P. (1997). Impacts and benefits of MICE tourism: A framework for analysis. Tourism Economics, 3 (1), 21-38. DOI:

Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., Spurr, R. (2004). Evaluating tourism’s economic effects: New and old approaches. Tourism Management, 25, 307-317.

ECEC (2014). The Erasmus Impact Study. Effects of mobility on the skills and employability of students and the internationalization of higher education institutions. Brussels: The European Commission Educational and Culture.

EIC (2018). Economic significance of meetings to the US economy. New York: Events Industry Council and Oxford Economics.

EIU (2007). Megatrends in B2B marketing. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit.

EMS (2017). Feedback from conference participants. (Report). Dublin: European Meteorological Society.

European Commission (2018). What is Erasmus? Retrieved from (12.08.2019).

Fenich, G.C. (2001). Towards a conceptual framework for assessing community attractiveness of conventions. Journal of Convention and Exhibition Management, 3 (1), 45-64.

Gilliland, D.I., Johnston, W.J. (1997). Toward a model of business-to-business marketing communications effects. Industrial Marketing Management, 26 (1), 15-29. DOI:

Gugg, A., Hank-Haase, G. (1995). Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Tagungsund Kongressreiseverkehrs in Deutschland. Frankfurt: GHH Consult GmbH.

Hallowell, R. (1996). The relationship of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profitability: An empirical study. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 7 (4), 27-42. ICCA (2007). The international association meetings market 2006:

ICCA Statistics Report. Amsterdam: International Congress and Convention Association.

Jung, S., Tanford, S. (2017). What contributes to convention attendee satisfaction and loyalty? A meta-analysis. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 18 (2), 118-134. DOI:

Lemanowicz, M., Puciata, E. (2010). Czynniki warunkujące sukces produktów turystycznych województwa małopolskiego. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Oeconomia, 9 (4), 255-265.

Malaval, P., Bénaroya, C., Digout, J., Szapiro, G. (2013). Business to business marketing from industrial to business marketing: Adaptation from 5th French edition. Bruxelles: De Boeck.

Malekmohammadi, A., Mohamed B., Ekiz, E.H (2011). An analysis of conference attendee motivations: Case of international conference participants in Singapore. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, 11 (1), 50-64

NBTC (2015). Business meetings in Holland. An analysis of the impact of the industry. Amsterdam: NBTC Holland Marketing.

Niemczyk, A. (2014). Produkty systemowe na rynku turystycznym. Ekonomiczne Problemy Turystyki, 1 (25), 79-99.

Nummela, C. (2017). Delegate Survey 2016 (Rep.). Helsinki: Finland Convention Bureau.

Olearnik, J. (2016). Contemporary marketing in tourist industry. Ekonomiczne Problemy Turystyki, 33, 9-19. DOI:

Oppermann, M. (1995). Professional conference attendees’ and non-attendees’ participation decision factors. The Society of Travel and Tourism Educators, 7 (1), 25-37.

Oppermann, M. (1996). Convention destination images: Analysis of association meeting planners perceptions. Tourism Management, 17 (3), 175-182. DOI:

Pal, D., Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S. (2015). Likert scale: Explored and explained. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 7 (4), 396-403. DOI:

Rogers, T., Davidson, R. (2016). Marketing destinations and venues for conferences, conventions and business events. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Sidorkiewicz, M. (2014). Specyfika organizowania konferencji i kongresów naukowych. In: K. Celuch (ed.), Zarzadzanie i organizacja przemysłu spotkań w Polsce (pp. 91-103). Warsaw: Szkoła Główna Turystyki i Rekreacji.

Smith, J. (2018). Who can take part? Retrieved from: (17.08.2019).

Staff weeks search (2018). Retrieved from: (10.09.2018).

Stasiak, A. (2013). Tourist product in experience economy. Tourism/Turyzm, 23 (1). DOI:

Swarbrooke, J., Horner, S. (2011). Business travel and tourism. New York: Routledge. DOI:

UIA (2018). International meeting statistics for the year 2017. Report. Brussels: Union of International Associations.

UN WTO (2010). The International recommendations for tourism statistics 2008. New York, NY: UN WTO Publishing.

UN WTO (2014) Global Report on the meetings industry. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

Weber, K., Chon, K. (2009). Convention tourism: International research and industry perspectives. New York: Routledge.

WTTC (2018). Travel & tourism economic impact 2018 (Report). London: World Travel & Tourism Council.

Zeithaml, V.A., Parasuraman, A., Berry, L.L. (1990). Delivering quality service: Balancing customer perceptions and expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Zhang, H.Q., Leung, V., Qu, H. (2007). A refined model of factors affecting convention participation decision-making. Tourism Management, 28 (4), 1123-1127. DOI:

Żabiński, L. (2012). Marketing produktów systemowych. Warszawa: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.

Żemła, M. (2010). Destination brand licensing. In: M. Kozak, J. Gnoth, L. Andreu (eds) Advances in tourism destination marketing: Managing networks (pp. 110-120). London: Routledge.

First Page


Last Page